Anti-Semitism is the hatred of Jews, for centuries it had been common in Europe. In the early 20th century it was harsh in Russia, so many of the Russian Jews went to Germany also other European countries, they were more tolerant to the Jews. In Germany Jews were poor but a small population of the Jews had a good life.
At the time of 1933 in Germany Jews made up less than 1 percent of the population but there were successful in particular professions, 16% of lawyers and 17% of bankers were Jews and 10,000 doctors were Jewish in Germany. So no wonder why German people hated Jews they were jealous and angry at the Jews, the German people felt they were being taken over. The obvious reason why German people hated Jews they felt they were a threat, that they were likely to be successful.
Hitler thought that one race was the master race better than any other race. He called it the Aryan race this means lord. Hitler knew that there’s no such thing as Aryan race, but Hitler wasn’t worried. Hitler thought Aryans were a race let alone what he called a master race.
Hitler told German people that they were special, in mein kampf he wrote ‘all the results of art, science and technology that we see before us today are almost exclusive the product of the Aryan’. Hitler wrote that they were better than anyone living thing on earth. Nazis believed that slabs were an inferior race. They considered Jews and gypsies were not even human beings. It was a warning of what was to come.
Discrimination against Jews 1933-1937
When Hitler came into power in January 1933, even though he hated Jews he had no clear anti-Semitism policies yet. Hitler was cautious because severe measures against the Jewish people would hinder both of his objectives, these were to secure his dictatorship and get the German economy moving again. He kept cautious because his conservative allies would object to them also economic recovery would be disrupted by acts on Jewish businesses.
The very first action Hitler took on the Jews was on April 1st he decided a nationwide boycott of Jewish businesses and professions. This was to be presented to his conservative allies as a response to what the Nazis believed was Jewish inspired, anti-German propaganda in all the foreign press. The boycott was to last indefinitely, but, under a huge amount of pressure from persuasive conservatives in the government, Hitler restricted it to only a single day. This method was very successful.
There were many laws that discriminated against Jews. The government introduced some discrimination legalisation. On the 7th of April the law for the restoration of the civil service and also the law concerning admission to the legal professions successfully made sure non-Aryans out of these professions. President Hindenburg suggested that Jews that had fought in the war should be exempt and Hitler did not he was able to defy him. This actually shows anti-Semitism was not strong at that time and Hitler was weak. On April 22nd a decree regarding physicians services prohibited all Jewish doctors from working in the state health system although. Once again, the Hindenburg clause approved of this. This decree had been extended to dentist in June. Yet again April 25th merely 3 days later the law against the overcrowding of German schools restricted the number of Jewish students in any school or university to a maximum of 5% in total. This type of discrimination was severe it had restricted most people from there jobs.
Persecution against Jews 1937-1941
1936, with the words attention focused on the Berlin Olympics, was lucky for Germanys Jews. By autumn 1937, Hitler had decided to take it to the next level. He declared a more extreme phase in nazi policies. Hitler decided this year, because the Olympics were successful with the French people who saluted Hitler, he felt confident and that if he took greater action against Jews the foreign legions would not take action and see it as no threat. He did this to prepare Germany for war in four years time, he had to prepare Germanys economy for war and Goring was put in charge for this Job.
In Germany at the time of April 1938 there were estimated that about 40,000 Jewish businesses. All of the Jews property had to be registered allowing it to be easier to be confiscated. German capitalists were backed by Goring, they were able to buy out their fierce major Jewish rivals, most of the time at bargain prices. Assisted by Goring in December 1937 by reducing the foreign exchange and raw materials quotas for Jewish firms, also in March 1938 he banned Jewish firms from receiving government contracts.
There were many other policies which Goring took pleasure in doing. The number of Jewish firms to be plundered increased as a result of the seizure of Austria. Goring issued a decree for registration of Jewish property. In April 1938 by which all Jewish assets worth more than Rm 5,000 had to be registered and could not be sold or leased without government permission. At the time of March 1938 Jewish religious congregations were deprived from of legal protecting doctors were banned from treating anyone with the blood of a pure Aryan. Similar measures against lawyers, dentists and vets were followed shortly.
Jews were banned from certain commercial occupations. On the 17 of April every Jew was required to adopt an additional fist name, for men it was ‘Israel’ and for women it was ‘Sarah’. Jews were treated very badly, extreme actions were taken against them. Jews were defined as anyone with a single Jewish grandparent they were excluded from all official posts with no pension rights, from professions such as teaching, medicine, the law, from sports and finally the arts.
Holiday resorts, restaurants and hotels were decorated with notices “Jews not wanted here”, and any nazi hooligan could evict, beat up or rob a Jew with impunity…a deliberately organized attack, was a ‘spontaneous’ outburst of German anger was made on Jewish synagogues and businesses throughout the country on the night of 9th-10th November 1938. This so-called ‘crystal night’ was followed by their eviction from their houses, wholesale arrests, and conscription for forced labour. This was taken from Alan Bullock. As you can see if you were a Jew living in Germany at that time life was horrific.
The intensity of the governments campaign against the Jews in 1938 encouraged a new wave of intimidation and terror by party activists, which culminated in the notorious night of broken glass. The main event took place on the 7th of November 1938, a Jewish youth shot and killed a German embassy official in Paris in revenge for the Nazis treatment of his loving parents. Propaganda minister Josef Goebbles seize on the event as a window of opportunity to reclaim Hitler’s favour after, the fuhrer had ordered him to end his affair with Czech actress.
He got Hitler to agree that the SA should be allowed to have its final fling, he instructed party members to carry out demonstrations against the Jewish community in Germany during the night of 9th-10th of November. If any outsiders heard about these demonstrations they would be represented as a ‘spontaneous’ reaction of the German people to the murder of Paris. In an unprecedented orgy of violence, 8,000 Jewish shops and homes where ransacked and attacked, most synagogues were set on fire 100 Jews were killed and more than 20,000 arrested. This event shocked the outside world even Germans were horrified but there were only a few protests.
Kristallnacht took place because of two reasons the German embassy official was murdered and goring planned to get money out of it. The German people wanted revenge that’s why this devastating damage took place and not what Goring had expected. As a result the Jews were fined 1 billion for damage caused Goring got his money but he received it from insurance claims, any insurance claimed by Jews would be confiscated by the Reich.
The final solution
In 1942, when the nazi rule was throughout most of Europe, Wannsee was were the nazi leaders met near Berlin to discuss what they called a ‘final solution to the Jewish problem’. At the Wannsee conference they confirmed on the murder of every Jew in Europe. There were two ways they thought about first was working them to death or by execution. By 1945, around six million Jews had been murdered as a result of this decision. This policies was carried out because anyone seen as a threat to the nazis basically Jews were arrested by the aestapo and put in one of the six camps, staffed by the SS. The first concentration camp was set up in 1933. Also another reason why was, after Kristallnacht the German nazis were unsatisfied with the results of it and so Hitler agreed to these policies.
At the German camp of Belson, people were simply left to die of disease or hunger. In the last few months prisoners had turned to cannibalism in order to survive, it was that or die of hunger. They were seen to whip out a knife, cut a piece of the flesh from a corpse. A BBC reporter went in with the first troops. The report he sent back to London was horrific that, at first, the BBC would not allow it to be broadcasted. People had their doubts weather it was true or not.
Well never know exactly how many died in all of these camps but, out of those 81/2 million Jews in Europe in 1941, the SS probably murdered 51/2 million of them. The final solution that Himmler organised was so nearly complete. Only one thing came to the rescue of the remaining Jews, this was the second world war come to an end.
Here is a primary source 1939-1945 by M.Chaikin. The one way they were killed was they were gassed. The voice over the loud speaker told them to form into rows of five for ‘selection’. The strongest would be sent to the infirmary all others would be taken to the infirmary all others would receive showers and be taken care of.
Signs in the undressing hall read clean is good lice can kill, wash yourself, crude insulting even but, under the circumstances not out of place. Next the women were told to turn their valuables over to the guards for safekeeping. Up to the last minutes, the SS deceived the women with normal sounding phrases. Tie both shoes well, and put your clothing in one pile, because they will handle back to you at the end of the showers. This is how the murders were carried out.
In my essay I have focused on four parts to Hitler’s anti Semitic policies first I wrote about the background to anti Semitism up to 1933, it was common in Europe for many centuries. It was harsh in Russia so many Jews moved to Germany and to other European countries. Germans hated Jews because the Jew were becoming successful and were doing well in particular professions. Discrimination against Jews 1933-1937. Hitler had decided a nationwide boycott of Jewish businesses and professions to begin on the 1st of April. This method was very successful.
There were also laws, which discriminated against the Jews, the law for the protection of German blood and honour, September 13th 1935. Persecution of the Jews 1937-1942, by autumn of 1937 Hitler had decided to begin a more extreme phase in nazi policies. Also goring issued a decree for the registration of Jewish property in April 1938. At Kristallnacht an orgy of violence spread throughout Germany 8,000 Jewish shops and homes were attacked most synagogues set on fire, about 100 Jews killed, and more than 20,000 arrested. Hitler had decided on a final solution by 1942-1945. At the conference at Wannsee they decided to murder every Jew in Europe. By 1945 6 million Jewish people had been murdered. The camps were horrific they were murdered by gas.