The argument here is whether the tourism in developing countries brings more of benefits than drawbacks or not. Tourism, today, is most attractive way of business for development of any country as people prefer to travel and explore the world to enjoy their holidays and to be closer to their families. Even though, it is beneficial from many view points, it has few drawbacks, too. Both the benefits and drawbacks are discussed below in details. Developing countries are major attractions of tourists for visiting different places.
The developing countries include Asian countries, African countries, and many countries of Europe and North America. Tourism has been the basis of economic growth and stability for many developing countries in the world. Tourism generates maximum of revenue for developing countries. Many places of Africa, such as pyramids of Egypt, the great rift valley of Eastern and Southern Africa, Great Zimbabwe, Table Mountain in South Africa, Mount Kenya in Kenya, and Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania are few of the attractions.
These and other attractions contributed the arrival of total 124 million international visitors in the five years of 1990, 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2003. And they brought in approximately business of USD 52,891 million dollars in those five years. However, in developing countries other than Africa, the main attractions of visitors are mountains, wildlife, wetlands, and coastal areas. (Peter Saundry, www. eoearth. org, 25/08/2008) The tourism has also brought in foreign direct investment in the developing countries which has helped in developing these countries.
The foreign direct investment has come in the way of large-scale projects such as luxury hotels and resorts, restaurants, development of local market for shopping to tourists, and so on. This has also helped in growth and development of social culture of that region and social life of people in that region. (Lucy Ferguson, Central America Women’s Network, 03/2010) Tourism in developing countries has also helped in improving the relations with other countries. People from different countries visit different places and bring the message of togetherness.
Also, the international tourism has boosted for proper care and maintenance of their resources. Tourism has a powerful incentive to protect natural resources. These resources and visiting places are properly preserved for the long term so that maximum number of visitors can take benefit of it for longer time. (Lucy Ferguson, Central America Women’s Network, 03/2010) Tourism is not only the source of generating revenue to support conservation and management of natural environments but also creates many jobs and provides employment to many unemployed.
In developing countries due to high population and lack of education, maximum people remain unemployed but, tourism provides the opportunity of employment in terms of guide, or small businesses of hotel accommodation, food and beverages, entertainment and transportation, shopkeepers and supplies of goods and services. (Peter Saundry, www. eoearth. org, 25/08/2008) Even though, tourism in developing countries bring many positive changes as discussed above, it comes up with many unwanted and unethical things, too. Tourism in most of the regions is famous for bringing few social problems such as smoking, drinking, and unethical use of drugs.
The places like Goa, Bangkok, Thailand, etc. are popular for conducting such unethical things. Visitors often visit these places for having maximum use of tobacco and unethical things and destroy the culture of that place. (Mark Hampton, The Guardian, 24/09/2010) However, few of the tourist places in developing countries are totally polluted and lost their beauties may be sometimes because of natural disaster. The tourism management board of the countries has not even taken any actions for its wellness and preservation. The places like Andaman Islands and few beaches of Sri Lanka are still facing the effects of Tsunami.
Many of the residents are not back to their homes and villages due to ignorance of government in development of such places. (Ian Birrell, The Observer, 14/11/2010) Tourism is also responsible for causing environmental impact and results in drastic climatic changes. The cold places of India such as Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and many more face the problems of drastic climatic changes because due to increased pressure of tourists, the transportation has increased to the great extent and became responsible for climatic changes.
Due to increased construction, to meet the demands of tourists of luxurious hotels, restaurants, shopping complexes, and all also resulted in destruction of forests and vegetation, and the ultimate effect on climate. Increased tourism has also resulted in increased demand for water. Due to tourism, the waste of water has increased to the great extent. It has also resulted in air pollution, water pollution, and noise pollution. Anan Wattanakuljarus, The Nationwide Economic and Environmental Impacts of Tourism: A computable General Equilibrium Approach for Thailand, 02/05/2006) In Africa, the effects of tourism on indigenous peoples have been profound, with the eviction of communities from their lands, in addition to economic dislocation, breakdown of traditional values, environmental degradation.
The massive influx of tourists and their vehicles in the Masai Mara National Park in Kenya and in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Tanzania has destroyed grass cover, affecting plant and animal species in the area. Peter Saundry, www. eoearth. org, 25/08/2008) It concludes that even though tourism in developing countries has more of benefits, it also has drawbacks, too. At one hand, if the tourism resolves the problems of poverty, unemployment, inequality based on gender, ethnicity, and nationality and brings the opportunities of growth and development then at the other hand, its calls the problems of pollution, destruction of social ethics, and to some extent gives a boost to global warming.