By using different type of project management tools you can determined which tools and requirement that will be needed for the project. Project management has many tools available to help with managing projects. The two that are talked about in the chapter are these; Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Gantt charts, they help managers schedule and monitor the activities involved in large projects, such as implementation of a large-scale information system.
There are also software solutions that may be used for project management. With PERT, a project leader first prepares a list of systems implementation activities, identifies the prerequisite activities that must be completed before others can start, and estimates the amount of time required to complete each activity. Top managers may not be interested in PERT analyses, but they are usually very concerned about the time required to finish the entire project. The project leader can estimate this completion time by examining the various paths in the PERT network.
Because PERT diagrams in actual practice are so large (often covering entire walls), project leaders normally use a computer to identify the longest paths through such networks. Within a PERT diagram, the longest path to project completion is called the critical path, which is also the shortest completion time of the entire project. ” (p. 435) “Gantt charts are useful for both scheduling and tracking the activities of systems implementation projects because actual progress can be indicated directly on the Gantt chart and contrasted with the planned progress.
Gantt charts are straightforward, easy to understand, and can be used with PERT to ompare estimated completion times against actual ones. A disadvantage of Gantt charts is that they do not indicate the precedence of activities for the project, as do PERT charts. Rather, a Gantt chart treats each activity as if it were independent of the others, which of course is not really the case. For this reason, Gantt charts are better suited for systems implementation projects that are not complex and have relatively few interrelationships among implementation activities. ” (p. 436) It helps to look at the software as a framework that can be modified in hundreds of different ways to support your organization’s culture.
If you have a disciplined organization with projects that are well defined and stable, you can implement many system capabilities relatively quickly to streamline and simplify formerly manual processes. However, if your organization is new to the field of project management, you might have to introduce system features in several phases so that the learning curve is not too steep. Another factor, which could be considered in planning the scope and phasing of your implementation are the history and type of project. (informit. com)
There are so many different types of project management software that runs on desktop or notebook computers can perform these tasks easily and quickly, can enable a project leader to plan and control implementation tasks, and can help a team install a new system on time and within budget. Examples of project management software solutions include SAP, Agile, Microsoft Project, PlanBee, and Time Line. History shows that staging the introduction of features over phases actually improves the success and shortens the timeframe of the overall implementation.
By monitoring the new system and making sure that it continues to satisfy the three levels of organizational goals: (1) general systems goals, (2) top management systems goals, and (3) operating management systems goals. When these goals are not adequately satisfied, problems normally occur and the system requires further modifications. After the new system has been in operation for a period of time, the implementation team should reevaluate the new system’s effectiveness by:
* Talking with top management personnel and operating management personnel about their satisfaction with the new system. Talking with end users to determine their satisfaction. * Evaluating the control procedures of the system to verify whether they are functioning properly. * Observing employee work performance to determine whether they are able to perform their job functions efficiently and effectively. * Evaluating whether computer processing functions, including data capture and preparation, are performed efficiently and effectively. * Determining whether output schedules for both internal and external reports are met with the new computer system.
After these steps have been complete the team turns over control of the system to the company’s IT function, which now shoulders the responsibility for maintaining it. In effect, system maintenance continues the tasks created by the initial follow-up study, except that experts from the company’s IT subsystem now perform the modifications exclusively. For example, when users complain about errors or anomalies in the new system, it becomes the IT subsystem’s responsibility to respond to these needs, estimate the cost of fixing them, and (often) perform the necessary modifications.
The IT departments of even medium-size companies typically have forms for such requests, policies for prioritizing maintenance tasks, and formulas for allocating maintenance costs among the various user departments. It is common for business systems to require continuous revisions. Some of the common reasons include: increased competition, new governmental regulations, or the information needs of top management (or other levels of management) change.