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What was the state of the coalfield 1919-39 Assignment

Between 1920 and 1926, the miner’s pay was cut down. This was because the coal industry went crashing down. There was a lack of demand as well as investment. There were also very hard conditions for coal mining in south Wales. The miner’s pay became so low that the workers decided to go on a general strike. The miners refused to work until they were paid what they felt they deserved. When the workers went on strike, they aimed it at the government. The government had control over how much money the workers should be paid. The workers felt that the government should look after their workers.

A general strike is when everyone in the workers union goes on a strike. If you were part of the union, you would have to go on strike in protest against the low rate of pay you received. The workers wanted to control the work place, but the owners of the coal mines would lock the inside of the work place that the workers could not control the work place. This then led to unemployment. At the end of 1925 unemployment was 14. 4%. This kept rising over a few years. In 1926, there was a slump in output and exports of coal in south Wales. This is when the workers went on strike.

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In 1925, there was 44,630 tons of coal in output and a year later, in 1926, there were only 20,273. The output of coal went down 23,357 in just a year. A year later in 1927, the output of coal went up to 46,236. A1 is the most reliable because it gives detail and dates of what had happened in the 1920’s and 1930’s. The source tells you when coal was in less demand and what the reasons for the crash were. Source A1 says the reasons for the coal industry collapsing was due to overseas competition, general lack of demand over the whole industrial world, lack of investment and the difficult conditions for mining coal in south Wales.

All of these resulted in the slump of the coal industry. Unlike the other sources, A1 gives reasons for the crash of the industry. The source also gives statistics. The second paragraph of the source highlights that between 1920 and 1921, coal exports slumped by two thirds. This then lead to collieries to close down in big numbers. The source tells you that south Wales produced 30% of the world’s coal exports. By 1929 it produced 3%. Coal had been taken over by oil. This source gives you statistics and the reasons. The statistics show the percentages of coal exports.

In 1904 south Wales produces over 30% of the coal export but by 1929, it had fallen to 3%. The reason for this was due to the demand of oil and not coal. Oil was now being used in ships and coal wasn’t. Due to the demand shifting from coal to oil, this then led to unemployment. At the end of 1925, unemployment went up to 13. 4%. Two years after (1927) it was almost 23. 2%. In 1937, ten years later, unemployment had risen to almost 50%. Source A1 is the most reliable because it gives more detail than any other source.

The other sources give statistics but no reasons, or no statistics and only explain what had happened to the workers once they became unemployed. Why was there so much industrial unrest and what were the results for the miners and their families? In 1926, the coal owners decided to cut the wages of the coal miners. Those workers who did not accept the wage cuts were locked out of the work place. This was because the miners could stop the coal being dug out of the ground. Miners all over the U. K stopped work. They felt that they should be paid what they deserved. From May the 4th 1926, there was a general strike.

This is when all the workers refused to work. They were all part of the trades union. This union in south Wales was very strong. The workers refused to work and just after 9 days the TUC fell apart. The miners still didn’t go back to work. So for another six months the miners fought on to get the salary they felt they deserved. Even though the spirit of the trades union was strong, it was hard to keep the spirits up. It was also very difficult to raise funds to pay the workers who were on strike. This strike did not end until November in 1926. The strike was from May to November, lasting 7 months.

The end of the strike was due to starvation. The workers survived so long mainly because of the soup kitchens. When the workers first used the soup kitchens, the food had a large variety but by the end of august there were shortages. Bread and bully beef kept most of the people going. Whilst the workers were on strike, they would become cobblers. They would repair their family shoes and other things. Families would not send their children to school without shoes but there were reports of children suffering from blood-poisoned feet. The strike came to a point where it was miner vs. miner.

When one miner would go on a strike because of the low pay, there would be an unemployed miner who would then take his place. The miners who were on strike did not like this and there were angry demonstrators when the working miners would come to work. The Police would have to escort the miners to work. The workers would be called ‘scabs’ or ‘blacklegs. ‘ During the strike, there were many different ways to control the work place. In September 1935, miners at Nine Mile Point colliery in the village of Cwmfelinfach tried to stop the blacklegs from working. They would go to work but at the end of the shift they would not move.

This was then called a ‘stay-down strike. ‘ Workers from Parc and Dare colliery heard about what the workers in Nine Mile Point and then decided to join in with the strike. So did the men at Fernhill Colliery. The Stay-Down lasted 200 hours (8 and half days. ). But the men who stayed down for this time suffered permanent damage to their eyes. But they represented the courage of the community. But with courage, there was also bitterness in the community’s. Friends who had been friends for years became enemies. The wives of the husbands who were part of the strike would not sing with the wives of the husbands who were scabs.

They felt that the whole community should stick together. B6 is the most reliable because it is a picture taken at that time of all of this. The other sources could just be opinions but this picture shows worker coming from the Stay-Down covered in dirt. The picture is taken when the worker has come out the mine. So the ‘stay-Down’ did occur. The picture shows the courage of the man who has just spent 8 and half days in the mine. In those 8 and half days, he is covered in black soot but his wife still recognises him or he recognised her. But one of the other sources suggests that the men suffered from permanent eye damage.

So the wife should’ve recognised her husband even though he was covered in soot just like the other men. There is only one couple shown in this picture. The other females are not shown. The community are looking at the wife and husband with their baby. The picture shows the strength of the community but it doesn’t show the bad things of the community. They are all looking in amazement but they don’t show any worry. This might be because they are not worried about anything apart from what they believe in. the only person who looks upset in the picture is the wife of the man who was in the Stay-Down.

But this is something that can happen when you are away from someone you love for a long period of time. The man is holding the baby and putting his arm around his wife showing that he still has his strength and his family are still together. The people in the back show the whole community together and the husband with his wife with their child shows they are all working together as a family. The picture shows the community as a family working together. The effects of the depression years on coalminers and their families The effect of the depression on miners and their families was shocking.

Miners who had not been working for months or even years had a very hard time. Their children had a limited amount of money to spend on with clothes. Men who were unemployed could only afford a thin jersey for their son to wear to school with. The boy had no other clothes, not even a shirt or a vest. The thin jersey would not protect him from the cold air. The miner’s daughter’s shoes were something that was not worth thinking about. The shoes would’ve been all ripped apart with holes in the soles. But the clothes the girls would wear would not be just hers. The clothes she wore to school were not even clothes.

What the girl wore to cover herself on the way to school would be a cloak. This would have to last until the father of the family would get paid, but without working, his daughter and wife would have to share the cloak. So when the daughter came home from school, she would then have to give the cloak to her mother so she would be able to go out. The families with employed workers would be able to live a lavish lifestyle compared to the families who had a low income. In 1930 it was revealed that Wales supplied the even counties, which headed the list for the England and Wales TB; there were also many other diseases including diphtheria.

Diphtheria is a bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae (C. diphtheriae), transmitted from person to person through close physical and respiratory contact. It can cause infection of the throat, which may lead to obstruction of the breathing and then death. Like other respiratory infections, transmission is increased in over-crowded and poor socio-economic conditions. In temperate climates, prior to vaccination, respiratory diphtheria commonly affected pre-school and school age children, and deaths occurred from exotoxin-induced damage to other organs such as the heart.

Large epidemics occurred in Europe during and after the Second World War, with an estimated one million cases and 50,000 deaths in 1943. Nasal diphtheria may be mild and chronic carriage of the organism frequently occurs; asymptomatic infections are common. A cutaneous form of diphtheria is common in tropical countries, and may be important in transmission. Recently, large epidemics have occurred in Russia and the Newly Independent States. There was also a disease called scarlet fever. In scarlet fever, a skin rash appears on a child who has an infection caused by streptococci bacteria.

The infection usually takes the form of a strep throat infection, which is a skin infection that can be caused by streptococci. Or more rarely, as impetigo, (skin infection caused by bacteria) The rash of scarlet fever usually begins like bad sunburn with tiny bumps (papules), and it may itch. The rash usually appears first on the neck and face, often leaving a clear unaffected area around the mouth. It spreads to the chest and back, then to the rest of the body. In body creases, especially around the underarms and elbows, the rash forms classic red streaks called Pastia’s lines.

Areas of rash usually blanch (turn white) when you press on them. By the sixth day of a strep infection the rash usually fades, but the affected skin may begin to peel. Rash is the most striking symptom of scarlet fever, and there are usually other symptoms that help to confirm the diagnosis. Scarlet fever often begins with a reddened sore throat, a fever above 101degrees Fahrenheit (38. 3 degrees Celsius), and swollen glands in the neck. The affected child looks ill. The tonsils and back of the throat may be covered with a whitish coating, or appear red, swollen, and dotted with whitish or yellowish specks of pus.

Early in the infection, the tongue may have a whitish or yellowish coating (a “furred” or “strawberry” tongue), but later in the infection it may turn red, and its surface may begin to peel. Children with strep throat infections also commonly have: chills, body aches, and loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. When, rarely, scarlet fever occurs as a result of impetigo there are areas of infected skin along with the rash, rather than a sore throat. Many people thought malnutrition was the cause of these diseases. Many people were not getting what they needed to eat because of the lack of food supplies.

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