- What is a waste?
- What is solid waste, types, and effects
- How to manage the solid waste
- Solid Waste Management rules In India
- Swachh Bharat Mission
- Education and awareness For waste management
- Waste is unwanted or unusable materials.
- Waste is any material, substance or any byproduct, discarded after primary use or is worthless defective and of no use.
- Examples: Municipal solid waste (household trash), wastewater (such as sewage), surface runoff, radioactive waste, etc.
Solid wastes are any discarded or abandoned materials.
Examples of solid waste including the following materials can be discarded :
- Waste Tires
- Scrap Metal
- Furniture and toys
- Appliances and Vehicles
- Empty aerosol cans, paint cans
- Construction and demolition debris, asbestos.
Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source:
- HOUSEHOLD WASTE
Generally classified as municipal waste.
- INDUSTRIAL WASTE
Generally classified as hazardous waste.
- BIOMEDICAL WASTE
Generally classified as Hospital waste or Infectious waste.
- Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as they may Contain toxic substances.
- Hazardous waste could be highly toxic to humans, animals and plants are corrosive, highly inflammable or explosive and, or Explosive or react when exposed to certain things.
- E.g., Gases
- Household waste that can be categorized as hazardous waste include old batteries, shoe polish, paint tins, old medicines, and medicine bottles.
- Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals used in hospitals Is considered hazardous.
- These chemicals include : Formaldehyde and phenols, which are used as disinfectants and mercury which is used in thermometers or equipment that measure blood pressure.
- Leachate produced as waste decomposes cause pollution. Badly – Managed landfill sites may cause litter.
- Incinerating waste also causes problems because plastics tend to produce toxic substances, dioxins when they are burnt.
- Burning debris can generate energy are operational schemes.
- Reducing waste means less environmental impact, fewer resources and energy used and saves energy.
- Plastic Waste is another cause of ill health.
- Thus unnecessary solid waste that is generated should be controlled by taking specific preventive measures.
- Think about fires at landfills and its effects on us. Some health problems observed nearby these areas are:
- Respiratory Problems
- Visibility Problems
- Skin Irritation
- Blood Infections (When we stay nearby to waste).
- By the method of RRR, i.e., Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.
- Reduce Means to generate garbage as less as possible.
- Reuse: Means if possible use, again and again, an item instead of throwing it away.
- Recycle Means instead of disposing of garbage in landfill site sort out some of the things.
There are many ways by which we can manage the solid waste, and some of them are:
- By utilizing garbage bins, hence keeping the streets sidewalks clean.
- Collecting the solid waste from houses and keeping them in a single location.
- Using kitchen waste in the form of food scraps.
- Reusing shopping bags and baskets.
- Properly disposing of the medical waste.
- Recycling waste.
- Using recycled paper and stationery products.
- Reusing the plastic boxes, bags, glass, containers, carrier material, etc.
- Maintaining and repairing items such as appliances, clothes so that they last longer.
- Coordinate with State Pollution Control Boards.
Formulate the standards of groundwater, ambient air, noise pollution, leachate.
Review environmental standards and norms prescribed for solid waste.
To prepare an annual report of reports received from SPCB.
Publish guidelines t publish buffer zones restricting any residential activity.
Publish guidance to states or union territories on inner -state movement of waste.
- Prepare a solid waste management plan as per state policy.
Arrange for the door to door collection of segregated solid waste from all household.
Facilitate information of help groups provide identity cards and encourage integration in solid waste.
Direct waste generators not to litter, i.e., throw or dispose any debris such as paper, water bottles, cans, etc. or burn or bury waste on streets.
- Establish waste depositors centers for domestic hazardous waste.
Ensure safe storage and transportation of dangerous domestic waste.
Direct street sweepers not to burn leaves of trees directly in streets.
Provide training on solid waste management to waste pickers and waste collectors.
Collect waste from fruits, vegetables, flower, fish market on a day to day basis.
Collect horticulture, parks, and garden waste separately and process in the parks and gardens as far as possible.
SBA or clean India mission is a campaign in India that aims to clean up the streets, roads, and infrastructure of India’s cities, smaller towns and rural areas.
- Swachh Bharat includes construction of house owned and building owned toilets and establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use.
- The government of India runs this.
- The mission will also contribute to India reaching sustainable development goal.
SLOGAN: ONE STEP TOWARDS CLEANLINESS.
Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste management is increasingly important from a global perspective of Resource management. Raising education and awareness about municipal solid waste control is a critical component of useful waste management.
Raising awareness about a city’s MSW management activities and benefits of proper MSW can increase of :
- Use of city waste collection services by the public and private sectors.
- Funding for waste management from the local elected official.
- Support of local -level activities.
- Public participation in recycling programs.
- Lack of Funds and Capacity.
- Embedded cultural practices, behavioral norms, and beliefs. (e.g., belief the waste has no value).
- Lack of familiarity with economic opportunities with waste management.
- Unsupportive legal and regulatory frameworks.
- Lack of time or interest from by stakeholders.
The requirement of enormous funds for programme implementation
Lack of awareness regarding the significance of the water Resources.
Diversified characteristics and practices of the region, and the standard of living of people.