Youth in the whole world and also in United States are relentlessly exposed to cultural messages that promote violence as a way to solve problems and to feel empowered. Since adolescence is the time when the child become s an adult through a series of profound physical, sexual, and emotional changes, the consequences of these day-to-day violent messages are often traumatic and terrible. Violence permeates the home s, communities, and schools of many children.
Religious and ethnic conflicts in Ireland, India, and countries of the former Soviet Union, and in Asia, Latin America, and Africa claim a disproportionate number of young people as both victims and perpetrators. As a consequence, many of these adolescents in warring culture s grow up to be frightened and angry, often seeking retribution unless somebody intervene s in their lives to teach them to value peace.
In the United States, among all persons fifteen to twenty-four years old, homicide is now the second leading cause of death; more male teens die of gunfire than of all the diseases combined; and among African-American youth homicide is the leading cause of death. 1 Many teenage males acquire a sense of power and control with a gun, all too readily available to them. There are, if averaged, four and one-half guns in every U. S. household. Social Theory A growing body of theory and research provides us with a knowledge base concerning peace and conflict.
This literature can be drawn upon to inform us about those consistent principles that emerge from the study of social conflict and are thereby recommended as necessary components of peace education curricula. Our list of educational objectives is influenced by the content of the curricula we reviewed for this project, by our opinions about what seems most essential for peaceful people to know, and by the theoretical and research literature on conflict and peace.
While most of the curricula in our project focused on interpersonal conflict, the specific knowledge required for understanding conflict between adolescents is obviously different from the specific knowledge relevant for resolving ethnic conflict in Africa or for international conflict issues. Given the current limitations in time that teachers have for teaching about peace and conflict, instruction should emphasize general principles that apply to nearly all types and levels of conflict.
The generic knowledge includes principles about tendencies toward bias in perceptions of others (e. g. , prejudice, ethnocentrism, dehumanization); factors in escalation and de-escalation of conflict; causes and consequences of cooperation, competition, and violence; the role and dynamics of emotion in human relations; the importance of reconciliation following conflict; effective communication, problem solving, and decision making; conflict resolution strategies (e. g. negotiation, mediation, arbitration); and nonviolent methods of social influence (e. g. , positive incentives and reinforcement, friendly initiatives, nonviolent activism and resistance).
Social Justice Most educators engaged in peacekeeping rely on the use of adult authority to enforce rules. Such school districts, however, have faced considerable controversy over the disproportionate number of African-American and Latino/Latina students who become the subjects of the enhanced school exhortation and discipline.
In other respects, Peace Studies educators also argue that those who primarily focus on punitive security measures ignore crucial aspects of much adolescent violence. As Ian Harris has pointed out, deterrence policies neither provide students with an understanding of the problems of violence nor strategies to avoid it. Rather, these policies mirror a generally punitive criminal justice system. Peacekeepers thus rely on a peace through-strength approach that may deter violence, but is otherwise very limited.
Peace scholars, in fact, would describe it as a “negative peace approach. ” Most proponents of peacemaking strategies in schools seek to be more “positive. ” They use conflict resolution techniques to create a climate more conducive to learning in school that can empower young people to realize how conflicts may be resolved without force. School strategies that address peace building and violence prevention face many practical obstacles that mitigate against their successful adoption, implementation, and continuation in school and community settings.
T here is considerable disagreement about the desirability and efficacy of such policies as violence prevention and conflict resolution programs, police in the schools, mandatory expulsions for weapons, and metal detection equipment, to name just a few. Often, communication and agreement among stakeholders in the schools, the criminal justice system, and mental health and social service agencies, and among parents, students, and elected officials, are blocked by misperception, Youth Probation
According to Orange County Probation Department mission statement “Probation protects the community by conducting investigations for the Court, enforcing court orders, assisting victims, and facilitating the resocialization of offenders”. Probation is available to juveniles and adults, males and females, felons and misdemeanants. Least developed are facilities for misdemeanants. This should concern us, for these offenders require as much attention as do felons. True, some are accidental violators of law who need little if any help from probation and represent practically no risk in the community.
But among misdemeanants are also to be found the alcoholics, the drug addicts, the petty thieves, vagrants, and certain types of sex offender. All of these tend to be more disorganized personally, less capable of solving their problems, than are felons. And in individual instances they may be more dangerous than the latter. Yet the public considers misdemeanants lesser offenders. “After all,” we say, “they’re not serious criminals, like robbers. ” The result is that government does not spend much on probation service for these “lesser offenders.
Caseloads are fantastically high. Internship In the context described here it is of paramount importance if cooperation is to be achieved despite differences in race, nationality, and value orientations that concepts used are easily understandable and applicable to practice. Therefore, training of volunteers is designed to bring persons together for a common purpose. On-the-spot in-service training and sharing of experiences has been found to be the best method to test out concepts and to try out new methods of intervention for implementing change.
As new approaches are introduced, in-service training of staff and refugee volunteers from amongst the refugee population in the area is undertaken on a fairly widespread basis. Interns are encouraged to spend time gaining experience of direct work with refugees as well as acquiring familiarity with the administrative aspects of such work. Of primary concern in the area of social work with delinquent youth and criminal offenders is work with youth support in the criminal justice system, which is offered either by communal youth offices or the relevant services of private welfare organizations.
Following the Youth and Criminal Justice Act, social workers are requested to research the life circumstances of juvenile offenders and to bring up pedagogical considerations during the trial. Working toward a “decriminalization” of juvenile offenses (diversion), they also intervene directly by teaching “social training” courses, for example. The state criminal justice systems employ social workers as probation workers and in prisons, where they are involved in education and leisure activities for the inmates. They also help in preparation for the release and/or contacts with the outside world.
In addition, social workers provide counseling in centers for released prisoners. The journal Group work reveals a growing interest in group work, particularly in probation and criminal justice settings and in work with children. Feminist practice using consciousness-raising techniques has been an important influence. Work with women who have suffered domestic violence and with survivors of physical and sexual abuse in childhood has, as a result, used group work extensively. Specialized agencies often use group work to back up basically casework services or to offer a social action perspective to purely therapeutic work with clients.
Advocacy services, which assist clients to participate in decisions affecting their lives, often use group work as part of the process of supporting clients in learning self-advocacy techniques. Theoretical Models If the predominant method is casework, its theoretical model is eclectic, and some would say administrative. That is, British social workers are led primarily by the administrative and legal requirements for service provision and use the interpersonal skills gained in social work training to respond to requests from members of the public and to organize services sensitively.
Many of the demands made on them are for reporting, organizing, and liaison. However, faced with many personal problems, they inevitably use theoretical models to condition their response. Dealing with parents accused of abusing their children, people suffering because of the mental illness or disability of a family member, or elderly people managing bereavement and declining physical capacity, social workers inevitably use social work models of action to decide what to do.
The most conventional approach is to build upon a basically psychosocial perspective drawing from elements of systems theory and modeling treatment on a process derived from task-centered work. Thus the starting point is to use discussion, persuasion, and service provision as a way of improving the psychological capacity of individual clients or several family members to deal with problems which face them. The worker takes account of major agencies and social groups affecting his or her focal clients and may even describe them as systems.
He or she plans his or her work on the basis of a more or less explicit plan, agreeing with the client what the major problems are, what should be done, and who should do what. Explanations of particular problems may well be psychological, with some influence from psychodynamic ideas, but explicit knowledge and understanding of psychodynamic ideas is unlikely to be enough to allow the worker to pursue them as a treatment approach.
An exception is the increasingly important ideas drawn from attachment theory ( Howe, 1995). There is a strong influence from sociological ideas of class and oppression, particularly among workers who trained in the 1990s. Behavioral and cognitive work has been used in the United Kingdom, but primarily in specialized medical and clinical psychology settings, where social workers may be part of the team. Cognitive ideas have also been used in group work with parents and families.
In recent years, there has been a strong focus on concern for racism and sexism, and workers often look for ways of relieving oppressive situations which prevent improvements in clients’ lives, using an empowerment approach. Empowerment and antioppressive practice focusing on helping clients achieve their rights within the social and government services has been an important theoretical development. A common concern in the research literature and among substance abuse staff and administrators is the need to improve the quality of program evaluations and other practice and policy research in this field.
An emphasis on empowerment can make this goal easier in some ways, yet more difficult in other ways. Empowerment practice requires that services be consumer-centered and that clients and staff be actively involved in designing, implementing, and evaluating them along with the impact of relevant policies. Consumer involvement in the development, analysis, and reform of relevant organizational and public policies ensures that they will address clients’ strengths, concerns, and needs.
In addition to participating in policy research, consumers can help make efforts to improve the quality and relevance of program evaluations and other practice research less arduous by sharing their knowledge about their families and communities, the available supports and potential barriers to recovery, and often, how those barriers can be overcome. Programs can develop more innovative strategies for conducting research at nontraditional community sites and for identifying and evaluating the effects of natural resources and environmental barriers on consumers’ recovery and prevention activities.
The Orange County Probation Department The Orange County Probation Department is a criminal justice agency it provides community protection to the people of the area. The Probation Department’s main objectives are to help young offenders. Probation offer a conditional release of an offender according certain conditions. This probation period provides the offender to rethink about their lives and try to change themselves. The probation department helps them to achieve this target.
The department apply a practicable method which helps the offenders to select a new course of his/her life. It proves very useful specially for young people who are misguided because of environment. At Orange county Probation department makes special arrangement for these young offenders. They are kept in special premises. In this premises called Juvenile Hall every kind of facility is provided to young offender to change his course of life.