Over the years, social inequalities in the society have been a great stumbling block to individual and societal achievement. It has therefore acted as the major catalyst for underdevelopment, social animosity and internal conflicts in different capacities (Angela et al 2008). Though rooted in historical happenings where social classes and castes were highly regarded in the society, the modern era has assimilated the vice in forms of selfish and objective corruption delineations that are highly inter and intra-generational destructive.
Inequality and stratifications According to World Bank (2008), Social inequality refers to the scenario where individuals in the society lack equal status in the society. It is a socially created process where the roles in the society are matched to reward individuals or groups unequally from others. Areas of potential inequality in the society include denial to freedom of speech and assembly, voting rights, the extent of property as well as access to health care, education and varying social goods.
Social stratification entails the rigid subdivision of the society setting into hierarchies and layers that are defined on the basement of power, wealth and prestige (Joseph et al 2008). Marx theory of inequality indicates that the society will always be defined by “class” which may kill or make a nation. Before the Second World War, English society was highly Hierarchical with the wealthy merchants and citizens ranked with yeomen or gentlemen. It comprised of the royals, gently, aristocrats and labor class.
Currently Britain has three distinct social classes which includes the upper class that comprises of the rich people with inherited wealth, the middle class which comprises of industrialists and business owners who form the majority of the population and lower class being for the factory, mine and agricultural workers (Michael & Randy 2008). Though USA social inequality has persisted through out the historical period to the present moment, it has made large steps to try and reduce its occurrence.
Black people did not have voting rights or working rights which strongly compromised their economic ability. Besides, access to education was also denied for the black children and strong religious revolutionary interventions had to be established for addressing the situation. Currently, there still persist relatively high levels of inequality in accessibility of major security and administrative positions which provides a large gap between the poor and the rich (Angela et al 2008).
Other countries like Mexico and Brazil still have high levels of social inequality as people from other regions and more so Blacks are not allowed to own land in the region. As a result the lower class people are left to only work in the plantations and factories in the country. On the other hand, India and China have held to social inequality as a justification of their immediate religious affiliations that recognize and uphold caste system which appreciates that some people are born to lead while others can only follow.
This has contributed to the vast disputes over the last two decades in India as people realize that with proper education and skills development, anybody can contribute towards development in their country (World Bank 2008). Finally, apartheid in South Africa gives an unforgettable example where the colonizers established their separate superior systems that the black people were not supposed to use. It outlines a deliberate economic derived unit directional oppressive model meant to reduce resistance in resources access and exploitation.
Education, health care and recreation facilities were subdivided to ensure that the blacks did not assume higher status which could supersede theirs (Joseph et al 2008). Class, Gender and Ethnicity. Social classes are distinctions between individuals and groups in culture or societies where individuals are grouped into class based on their birth. Social classes are mostly divided between the powerful and the powerless. It is economically derived with those born in the privileged wealth classes assuming the high status in contrast to those who are born of the poor.
There is a great tendency of the high class to maintain their power therefore making the lower class individuals hard to ascend and gain the same status. Royal families and monarch governance systems accumulated power to single community lineage like in France, Britain and Ancient Rome (Michael & Randy 2008). Gender refers to the differences between men and women in the society that acts to define their roles and position in the society.
Since historic times, feminine gender has been socially disregarded in the society compared to men (Michael & Randy 2008). Many historic administrations considered women as being inferior and thus unable to hold major positions or lead in the communities. Besides, majority of the religions give less regards to women in the society and denies them chances to head or participate in any major decision making procedures in their communities. Christians and Muslims have for along time disregarded women leaders and their immediate participation in the preaching.
To add to that, the roles of women have been described and determined in their absence as they are not allowed to hold major administrative and political positions in the governance structures. Besides, majority of the third world countries still give preference to the male children with the females being denied chances to get better education and facilities. Until recently, land and property ownership in the world has been a reservation for the men as opposed to the women (World Bank 2008).
Ethnicity delineates the affiliation of individuals to a specific community in the society. All people are born from specific ethnic groups and communities in the society (Angela et al 2008). These groups give individuals a sense of belonging and identity therefore being a precursor and a major pointer as to the immediate and later expectations of the same group and others too. However, ethnicity has been exploited by leaders to ensure resources are unethically enjoyed by a single or several of thee communities.
This has been indicated by major corrupt leaders like in Iraq and Nigeria where the petroleum resources and the government positions only went to the favorites and presidents ethnically related communities only. Contributions of social inequality to the society. Angela et al (2008) points out that social inequality in the society has strongly impacted the society’s economic and social fabric and acted as the major determinant of the immediate economic development for the different nations. Regions and areas with high social inequalities have experienced lowest economic development over the last decade.
Majority of the third world countries have large gaps between the poor and the rich. Poor distributive efficiency in the society reduces the sum total of the personal utility therefore lowering the overall marginal utility of the wealth and resources in the country (Joseph et al 2008). Besides, there is reduced innovation and invention from the larger population that is found in the lower and middle classes as they are poorly rewarded by the high class which serves to increase its wealth only.
According to the law of diminishing utility, availing the resources to the disregarded low class poor people would enhance high value as opposed to the high class people. To add to that, social inequality has been the main source of internal conflicts in different countries in the world. After realizing the truth that people can be able to make correct decisions, lead and increase production in the society, people have always tried to quest for this power which is met with equal or greater resistance from the existing authorities. This has with time brooded conflicts in major countries.
Recurrent conflicts in Sli-Lanka, Democratic republic of Congo, Apartheid South Africa and the recent war in Liberia were all instigated by social struggle to access and control resources. As a result, these countries have remained low in terms of economic, industrial and human development (World Bank 2008). In addition there has been increased social cohesion in different countries between the different social classes. There are reduced trust and community commitments to push for common agendas on different issues that affect them.
US major towns have increasingly been reporting high levels of crime as a result of the large gaps in the society. Due to desperation of the people born to the lower classes and their reduced access to education and well paying jobs, drugs abuse in the society, suicides and homicides have drastically increased in the last two decades (Angela et al 2008). Besides, social inequality acts as a major obstacle in ensuring that the people fail to realize and exploit their main potential in the society since they are obstructed from participating in different activities of sports and leadership.
For a long time certain sports and politics had been reserved for men thereby preventing women from fully exploiting their talents for economic gains. It not only placed a platform for increased corruption for the men but also blocked major important decisions provision for development (World Bank 2008). Conclusion. Social inequality in the society is a major facet in killing democracy and reducing or slowing economic development. It obscures different people from participating and accessing the resources therefore reducing the main capacity for sustainability of the same resources.
It has served to kill and raise hatred in the society which broods faster breakdown in the social-cultural fabric necessary for immediate development. Therefore, increased democracy should be assimilated in all the regions and countries for faster development. Besides, economic incentives should be established to kill and reduce the effects of social inequality. Finally, local and international cooperation should be encouraged to eliminate the vice from the society.