1) Mental Illness – Schizophrenia
Category – Simple Schizophrenia – appears during late adolescence. Symptoms include increasing apathy, decline in academic or work performance and gradual social withdrawal. The sufferer may be regarded by others as idle, or a drifter. Diagnosis depends on establishing the gradual progression and worsening of these symptoms. Hallucinations and delusions are not usually manifest.
I choose this mental illness because I want to become a children’s nurse and I thought it would be a good idea to know about the mental aspect of children’s illness.
2) Schizophrenia itself comes under DSM-IV but the sub-category simple schizophrenia comes under ICD-10; because it does not prescribe what exactly should be in the diagnosis; people with simple schizophrenia may manifest a variety of symptoms. These may vary from one individual to another. (There are no set symptoms for diagnosis).
3) Cognitive Theory – is about how we perceive and process information and how it affects our behavior. People with Simple Schizophrenia will have negative thoughts patterns, which will affect their behavior. They may probably have “set rules” for living which they have developed while growing up. These are based on what we learn from other people and our own experiences. They may be realistic or unrealistic, helpful or unhelpful. For example if a young person believes that they are the cause of their parents divorce – even though the reality is that there are issues such as domestic violence or infidelity – this idea is likely to produce negative thoughts of themselves such as guilt, blame and eventually feelings of depression. They may even develop apathy, social withdrawal or decline in academic work. From a cognitive perspective the idea would be to reconstruct the negative thoughts and subsequent behavior into positive ones.
Psychodynamic Theory – is about how our past experiences influence our behaviour in adulthood. People with Simple Schizophrenia may have developed conflict between the id, ego and super ego; the person may try to resolve these conflicts by using defence mechanisms such as repression, regression and projection. For example, a young person going through puberty or parents divorce who is normally a very outgoing, bright pupil at school suddenly becomes socially withdrawn, starts self-mutilation or/and begins to revert to bed wetting may have underlying issues which would need to be dealt with. From a psychodynamic perspective the idea would be to get to the root of the problem lying in the repressed contents of the unconscious mind.
4) Strengths of cognitive approach –
-Aims to change those negative thoughts and behavior into rational self-accepting statements by doing so, the individual’s behavior will change too.
– Weaknesses tries to deal only with the “with here and now.”
– -Does not take into account peoples mental ability
-Strengths of psychodynamic approach –
– Tries to get to the “root” of the problem
– Weaknesses does not consider the possibility that the negative thoughts/patterns and behavior could be due to recent trauma such as the death of a loved one or a major event in their life.
5) Treatment could be in the form of therapy and/or anti-psychotic drugs
Treatments; Cognitive Behavior Therapy is a way of helping people cope with emotional problems. It is a way of talking about the connection between how we think, how we feel and how we behave. Participants are encouraged to examine the evidence for and against their beliefs, challenge their patterns of thinking about the belief, and develop acceptable alternatives (Beck)
Strengths – can be helpful for people who have been through traumatic experience.
– It helps people learn new methods of coping and problem solving which they can use for the rest of their lives.
Weaknesses – cannot be used solely for people with schizophrenia
– Clients must be willing to participate.
– The therapists tends to change the individuals perception of thinking
– Psychodynamic – (Psychotherapy) based on the theories of Freud and others focuses on the feelings we have about other people, especially our family, and the people we are close to. The treatment involves discussing past experiences and how these may have led to our present predicament. Allows the individual to express him or herself freely by talking about emotional painful subject. In the case of children play therapy, which was developed by Melanie Klein, may be used; this is where the child is allowed to act out its problems in a safe environment while the therapist observes never criticizing or stopping the child no matter how bizarre or inappropriate it may seem.