The change in globalization has lead to a plethora of campaigns that advocate against sexual discrimination which mostly affects women in the society. The efforts women put into the society to improve their welfare, the welfare of the society and the economy of the country are disregarded as the women are perceived to be less important than men therefore, their views in the society do not matter. Male chauvinism has greatly affected the development of the female as the notion of masculinity has denied them virtual elements such as education and equal employment opportunities.
This results to the suppression of the abilities of women in a society denying them the accorded privileges. For example women were not allowed to exercise their voting rights until in the 1920s in US after campaigns that advocated for fair electoral systems which were not to be discriminative against color, religion and gender (Mechikoff & Estes, 2002). Sexual discrimination is also observed in sports as gender bias is depicted especially on the selection or qualifying category.
Actions that depict prejudice against a person due to their sex leading to payment of lesser salary or lack of provision of certain benefits because the person is considered to belong to the weaker sex category. In sports a clear difference in the organization culture, pay system, work condition and celebrity status among others is depicted between the women and men sport department. It is argued that men are more aggressive, dynamic, fast and exciting than women thus the reason for the existence of the discrepancy between the two sports departments (Mechikoff & Estes, 2002).
In an attempt to curb sexual discrimination the US government has introduced more women based sport activities in the school curriculum to encourage them to participate more and thus increase the acceptance of their ability to the community. However, the slow but steady growth of women in sports has still not managed to curb gender bias in sports, as in the male ideological superiority environment, women still need to show more potential; for instance be more exciting through aggression (Wellard & Youth Sport, 2008).
Despite the efforts of women to narrow down the masculinity gap, women are still depicted as sex objects who do not deserve an equal opportunity in sports. Although women have been included into sport and even allowed to compete globally during world Olympics, their grievances to be treated equally as men has been continuously ignored as the pay scheme for the same type of sport activity differs, for instance in the X-Games that took place in 2004 at Staples Center, Los Angeles the woman gold medalist was awarded a $ 2,000 while the male gold medalist was awarded $50,000 (Swaddling, 2004).
In 2005 at the winter Badger Beach Volleyball Series events the women’s open was awarded a price that was half the value of the price awarded to the men’s open which was $1000 (Swaddling, 2004). However, today the difference in the price awarded to the women is almost equal to the price awarded to the men (Swaddling, 2004). In a broad perspective the media is also responsible for the growth of gender bias in sports as they mainly concentrate on women sports activities that convey their feminist attributes to the society for example gymnastics.
The media plays an important role in shaping the views and reasoning of the society; therefore by concentrating on only a few disciplines of the women sports they influence the judgment of the society on the overall importance of women and men in sports. The coverage on the men’s sports activities are ambivalent as a host of commentaries based on their personality rather than ability result to coverage of the whole footage of the event, unlike in the women’s coverage where short captures that are highly edited are shown.
From the information gathered from the sport previews in the media the popular beliefs and attitudes of the community towards the concept that women are weaker than men in sports is well depicted because the media has managed to minimize the participation, ability and achievements of the women. However this discrepancy has overly decreased as more coverage on the women sports activities by the media has increased especially in the 21st century (Swaddling, 2004).
Gender stereotype in sport has also contributed to gender bias where the women are sexually discriminated because the sport activities are categorized through the physical ability which depicts women as weak and lacking the appropriate ability to participate in the same sports activities as the men. Gender socializations also harbors the capability of women being given ranks in sports as the society considers the dominance of the male to imply their superiority thus the notion for the male to lead and the women to follow is applied (Wellard & Youth Sport, 2008).
The cultural practices of our communities have also created an antagonistic environment for the role of women in sports. It stipulates that women are suited for the aesthetic sport activities such as cheer leading and ice skating among others as they do not advocate for the participation of the women in physical sports activities such as rugby and wrestling. The cultural principles of femininity does not present fair opportunities of participation into all sports events as it is conceptualized as going against cultural ethics of the community.
Therefore the preconceived principles of the cultural practice that are bestowed into the growth and reasoning rationale of the girl child also creates a negative attitude towards the participation of the women in some sports activities that are dominantly played by men (Morgan, 2007). The discrepancy that women face in sports due to sexual discrimination which results from the concept of gender bias is also depicted in the marketing discipline of business as companies prefer to use male sports activities to advertise their brands of sports apparel so as to attain a wider scope of the market.
The women sports movement has also not helped in curbing gender bias in sports as approximately 80% of the sport communication positions are held by men (Wellard & Youth Sport, 2008). Also positions that seem to be more beneficial and the pay is very attractive are also headed by men because they have managed to manipulate the community into regarding them as better leaders than women.
For example when the basketball team for the women was poorly performing no man wanted to be associated with it but when the women started becoming successful most men were fighting for the position of directing the team (America Association of University Women et al. , 2008). In the education curriculum, especially those based on physical education seem to feature men sport activities and constantly refer to the men in the context thus further depicting gender bias in sports where women face sexual discrimination.
The motivational schemes and strategies outlined to encourage the participation of more women and men into sports activities are also different. The strategies used to lure more men are more engaging than those used to attract the women thus making the men to develop a profound relationship with the sports discipline and therefore promote their performance. The women on the other hand are not engaged into the sports activities thus the relationship that grows does not account for the recognition and respect of their rights as sports employees (Bernstein & Tavris, 2000).
The biological difference that occurs between the male and the female has also formed a basis in the evaluation of the sports activities that women should engage in. The concepts sexually discriminate against women because not all are affected by their biological composition and have even adapted to strategic measures that help them to perform well in the sports activities. For example women are highly affected by stress unlike men which highly affects their capability to perform effectively.
Some of the sports activities are viewed to be risk factor to the health of the women and may sometimes lead to their infertility for example rugby where tackling of the body is a recognized sport rule, therefore ruling out the possibility of the women participating in such sports activities (Tamburrini & Tannsjo, 2000). However, the attitude towards sexual discrimination on women is decreasing as the world of today advocates for the equal treatment of women in the society.
In sports women are according the same respect as men though not yet in all disciplines. The media is putting the same weight on the coverage of the women’s and men’s sports activities and even implementing strategies that will attract more women to participate in the sports events or to support the other members by showing up in large numbers to their events. This has helped the women to increase their enthusiasm and aggression towards sports increasing their appointments into the various sports departments as officials and coaches.
The traditional cultural practice that prevented most women from actively participating in sports due to consideration of the act to be against cultural norms have been modified to cater for the indulgence of the women in sports activities especially those that require their physical contact such as hockey and football. Reforms and government policies are currently under evaluation to include the same amount of reward to both the women and the men who participate in sports activities (Mitchell & Ennis, 2007).
The increased campaigns that advocate for the respect and acknowledgment of the women’s rights have lead to the reversal of roles where the males are the victims of sexual harassment as women are more favored. For instance lower entry points or characteristics in enrollment process have been set lower for women thus affecting the overall selection opportunities for men (McDonagh & Pappano, 2008).
However, male chauvinism is still present in the society thus still prevailing instances of gender bias in the society and in sports the need to further promote the fair treatment and consideration of women in sports is still evident. Physical educators, coaches, sports administrators and male and female sports participants should work hand in hand to gain education on the merits of an equally worthy sports competition. They should also educate the community on these benefits too, to help them change their multicultural concept and support the involvement of women in all sports activities.