In this case study I will be looking at one state , that is Punjab, and compare the differences of the population density between two districts, one rural and one urban, within that state, I will do this by looking at the birth rate, death rate fertility rate and infant mortality rate etc. And examining the fact and analysing them which led to the differences. In Jalandhar, the rural district, we see that the population is 1,962,700. In Amritsar, the urban district, the population is 3,096,077. The population is much larger in Amritsar, and we can say that Amritsar is a more urbanised area in Punjab.
This is because the government have spent much money to develop the area as it’s a major city of tourism due to the location of the golden temple. This has also attracted both tourist and many people from rural areas. So the increase in population adds to the increase of population density in that area. In Jalandhar we see that as it’s a rural district the population stays low therefore this plays one major role in leading to the low population density. Another point that I feel is correlated is that the people per household is proportionate to the number of population.
This is because as the area of the district is limited when there is an increase in the population the average space per person will decrease, this will lead to a rise in the people per household and therefore cause a higher population density. Now looking at Amritsar we can see that the number of people per households is 6, this is a high number is responsible by the high number of population, this number would have been higher if the area was low, but as it was high the number of people per household turned out quite less.
In Jalandhar we see that the number of people per household is 5, there not much different between Jalandhar and Amritsar this is because the area of Jalandhar is much smaller to that of Amritsar and this lead to an increase in the number of people per household. Therefore this proves our theory that as the population increases so does the people per household. So these factor effect the population density in a propionate way. I. E. if the population and number of people per household increases so does the population density.
Looking at the Birth rate and death rate, as the records were not found for each district I decided to use the different age group population and use the term ‘high birth rate, low birth rate, high death rate, low death rate’ according to how many people were in each age group. Now in Amritsar we see that the birth rate is quite high, this is because within the age group 0 – 4 we see that the population is 286,056. This tells us that the birth rate will be high and also the infant mortality rate will be quite low since the population of children is high.
Now looking at the rest of the age groups we see that the population is still quite high and this leads us to assuming that the death rate must be quite low as the population of the age groups does not decrease by a great amount. Also as we can see the number of people which live beyond 60 years is 283,409 this number is quite high and therefore we can say that the life expectancy is also high. To conclude this we can say as Amritsar is an urban city the medical facility is high and this is proved by the high number of population.
Drawn below is a sketch of the population pyramid of Amritsar from the assumed data written above. Now looking at Jalandhar we see that the population of people in the age group 0-4 is 154,749 this figure is much lower than what we saw in Amritsar. So therefore we can say that the birth rate is either low, this is unlikely as it is a rural district, or that the birth rate is high but the infant mortality rate is very high. In the other age groups we see that the population does not increase at an exponential rate and it is much lower than the figures in Amritsar, so this tells us that the death rate is high.
And also as there are relatively few people above the 60 year age group therefore meaning that the life expectancy is low. To conclude this we can say, as Jalandhar is a rural city the medical facility is low and this is proved by the low number of population as compared to Amritsar. These factors here also affect the population density again in a proportionate way. Drawn below is a sketch of the population pyramid of Jalandhar from the assumed data written above.
Now looking at both the population density of Amritsar and Jalandhar. We see that Amritsar has a population density of 619. 21. This is quite high but it’s expected from an Urban district in a LEDC. Reason have been explained above, human and physical factors is listed below. In Jalandhar the population density is 577. 09 we can see this is lower than Amritsar’s but still quite high, it is high because it is in a rural district region but it is lower than Amritsar’s because jalandhar has a higher death rate.