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Motivation and job performance Essay

Motivation and job performance have always been a common research among all the researches. It also has been extensively researched. Throughout the halfway in this twentieth century, there are few important motivation theories which are Maslow hierarchy of needs (1943), Herzberg’s two-factor theory (1959) and Expectancy Theory (1964). Those researches will commonly focus on the motivation theory as general while employees motivation will be specifically researched. In the past few years, there were various of the definition was given for motivation, e.g. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs defined that there is five levels of human needs that must be satisfied in a ordinal way where it starts from the bottom till to the top.

In this rapid society where everyone is racing with the time, employees in education sector face difficulties to cop up with the timing and also with loads of work. These employees need some certain ways to boost up their motivation in order to complete their work on time and also by giving the best quality of work. But, in order to boost them up, what are those ways to solve this problem? What can be done by the supervisor in order for the employees to produce the best quality and on time work? The only solution is through intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. These motivations play a critical role in producing better performance at work.

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The definition of intrinsic motivation is the invigoration that will allow an individual to auto mechanics of a person’s behavior for their own reparation and gratification. Intrinsic motivation is usually will be self-pleased and demeanor undoubtedly changes according to the individual itself and the enclosing situation. Meanwhile, the definition of extrinsic motivation is motivation that possessed to an response that is altered from newcomer instead of their own enjoyment.

However, in this research, supervisory support is very important towards a better job performance. Supervisory support helps to encourage the employees who are the trainees through effective communication and also helps to improve the motivation among them. Without the support of supervisory, the employees might be traveling beyond their own right track to complete their work and produce better quality work.

1.1 Research Background

In this research, we are going to study the motivation concepts and its importance towards the job performance ,especially in education sector. The practitioners, that is the supervisor, and the person that involves in this education sector must know the significance of the motivation in order to increase the job performance. To make sure we have a better understanding about this research, we are going to explore more of the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and its impact in particular.

At the early of the 1970s, intrinsic motivation have been studied. This motivation is actually a self-desire to look up for new things and new challenges to be satisfied. This is because it is used to analyze the capabilities, gain knowledge and also to observe.
Within the experimental studies of animal behavior, intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged. In that studies, due to curiosity-driven behaviors it was proven that the organisms would be more boost up and excited with the absence of reward.

The influences outside of the individual itself is the actually reason where the extrinsic motivation happened. The main question that will be asked in extrinsic motivation is where do people get their motivation in order to keep pushing with better persistence. Common extrinsic motivation can be named as rewards such as money or even grades. Competition among staffs or even outsider also can be one of the extrinsic motivators because it gives a strong driven for an individual to perform well and better to win. This is because human being have always wanted to be best in everything and also receive the best and better reward compare to others. In this way, when there are competitions among them, they will be more trigger to do their work in order to receive a better reward.

1.2 Problem Statement

The success or failure of an organization is determined based on the employee quality in order to achieve their organizational goals and long-term visions. An organization can be called successful if the employees manage to finish their work on time, produce best quality results and also achieve the initial organization objectives.

Job performance has become a huge impact on the organization itself. This is because a success of an organization is based on the employee’s job performance. If the employee’s job performance decreases it will eventually give a huge impact on the development of the organization. Eventually, it can be said that what an employee think and do will literally lead to the productivity and the efficiency of the organization.

Labor turnover and absenteeism have been the common issues that related to employees’ dissatisfaction however, there are some other factors to related to it. This is why to improve job performance, motivation plays an important role to boost up the employee. An job performance will be failed if there are no motivation concepts in their organization. The motivation provided can be internally or externally. There are some evident saying that the decrease in job performance of an employee is because of lack of the motivation to learn among themselves and also lack of support from the organization management.

1.3 Research Objective

1.3.1 General Objectives

This study aims to test the mediating effect supervisory support in the relationship between motivation to learn and job performance.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives

The objectives of this proposed study are to:

  1. To examine the relationship between motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) and job performance.
  2. To examine the effect of supervisory support as a mediator in the relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performance.
  3. To examine the relationship with motivation and supervisory support.

1.4 Research Questions

This study has generated few questions to be answered regarding the motivation to learn and job performance. The research study will be guided by the following research question for the investigations as follows:

  • How to increase the employee’s job performance by providing motivation to learn ?

What is the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and job performance?
How the supervisory support affect the employee’s job performance?

1.5 Significant of Study

This study contributes to further research, organizational perspective and individual perspective (employee). The certainty and reliability of the result of this study can be a guideline for future research on job performance.

In organizational perspective, this study helps to promote better understanding and knowledge of the relationship between motivation to learn and job performance. Besides that, this research helps to determine how the supervisory support affect the job performance of the education sector employees. It also helps the organization to figure out the best way to improve the productivity and the efficiency of the organization.

Furthermore, this research study helps the organization by providing useful information to set suitable strategy in making sure that how the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the supervisory support gives maximum level of satisfaction and fulfillment.
1.6 Limitation of Study

This study was conducted on the motivation to learn and job performance which targeted the education sector employees. Around 200 employees are targeted and selected randomly from the Johor state. And the randomly selected students are from the sector around Kluang city. Furthermore, the research project is likely requires more money and time. And due to the money and time constraint, so the scope of the study has been reducing.

1.7 Conclusion

In this chapter, it is the introduction regarding the motivation to learn and supervisory support that was related to the job performance. This chapter introduces some variables of motivation to learn that would be studied (intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) and the importance of these variables in order to increase the job performance ,especially education sector. Thus, to understand better the concept of the motivation to learn and its importance towards the employee job performance a review of the literature and a testing of the framework should be conducted, in which will be revealed in the following chapters of this research.


2.0 Introduction

A literature review is ordinal process that involves the determination of published and unpublished work from secondary data sources on the topic interest (Sekaran & Bougie, 2009, p.38). Each of the contents of the literature is focused on the specific nature of the relevant literature that relates to this study.

This chapter contains the reviews of secondary data that researchers have collected from journals, articles and book. The reviews are summarized after some referral from the past studies and are related to the motivation models. The formulation of hypothesis is based on the relationship between independent variables (intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) and dependent variables (job performance).

2.1 Concept of Motivation to Learn

In general, the word motivation is incredibly powerful nevertheless will generally be tough too. generally it feels that to induce impelled would be straightforward and may even realize ourselves crammed with plenty of pleasure and happiness. However, it also can be the foremost troublesome factor to attain on the way to encourage yourself.

What is motivation to be told anyways? the way to outline it? The phrase motivation to be told will be divided into 2 parts that is motivation and learning. The word motivation solely will be referred to as a persistence, direction or maybe associate quantity of effort that will be dilated into a personal in order that he or she might reach their explicit objectives. (Blanchard & Thacker, 2007). Besides that, leaning will be determined mistreatment 2 part that square measure human psychological feature and behavioral perspective. psychological feature theories have explained learning as comparatively permanent changes in psychological feature occurring as a results of experiences. Behavior theories even have outlined that leaning as comparatively a permanent changes in behavior in response to a stimulant or set of stimuli. (Noe,1986: 736-170). All the on top of, can directly or indirectly have an effect on the individual World Health Organization encompasses a clear goal, high self-efficacy and even World Health Organization puts a high price on outcomes.

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