Migration is an issue raised by the mass media in the last decades in the richer countries, and it has become an important matter for the government of those countries. Migration is frequently labelled as a recent event, but it is a wrong analysis of this phenomenon. There are, for instant, few people in the United States who can say they originate from North America, with the exception of those of Indo-American heritage, all the rest have immigrant European ancestors.
More than ever before, people are crossing borders and embarking on what are sometimes long and dangerous journeys in search of a better life. Nowadays we can notice how ethnic differences shape the society where we live. This essay will discuss the existing reasons behind migrants’ communities, which make them leave their motherland, and the repercussion in the received countries. Firstly, we are going to talk about the reasons why people emigrate from one country to another country.
Different academic studies have identified the main reasons for migration as push and pull factors, such as the economic and social situations. According to Giddens, (2006:500) push factors are related with the lack of opportunities to improve their lives on the origin countries, and pull factors are linked with the opportunities offered for the receiving countries. Inside of the socio-economic push factors we can find reasons as unemployment, poverty, high rents, discrimination and lack of housing.
On the other hand the high living standards, good wages, promotion and good welfare services of the receiving countries become pull factors for immigrants. According to Koser (2007:56) growing differences between countries in terms of progress, democracy and population in part causes international exodus. The awareness of these differences between countries through the mass communication system and the improvement in transports have facilitated and accelerated this movement.
By migrating, people try to protect themselves and their families against the effects of a weak economy, and from a political crises, armed conflicts and other risks” (Koser, 2007:56). People have fled from lack of food, war and persecution. They have been driven away, captured and shipped against their will. ” Recently, increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers are coming to Britain, escaping from war and violence in their home countries” (Giddens, 2006:500) Many more, however, have moved simply because they thought and hoped that life would be a little bit better elsewhere.
On the other hand, Martin (2005:187) point that a demographic difference between developed and developing countries is another reason that contributes to the movement of people. Continued low fertility in developed countries produces a rapidly ageing of population. The lack of newborn, consequently, put in risk all the economic system because the labour forces are not renewed. This is a good example to understand what drives individual preferences over immigration policies in the developed countries, and how them get advantage from the demographic increasing in the developing countries.
Finally, I will make reference to illegally migration and the “gender issue”, analyzing the reasons that force women to take dangerous journeys in the battle of a better life. “The transport of women is part of a broader picture of illegal human migration… It becomes an immigration issue plus social problem/human rights problem/economic issue”. (Beare M, 1999:28) According to Beare, some of the women may be legal but still exploited.
Organized crime groups often use to offer jobs as entertainers to enter in the country of destination with legal papers, but still vulnerable to those who have paid her way to get into the country and then forced into prostitution to recoup the costs. In conclusion, the debate about immigration is an important issue on the political agenda both in Europe and in the US. Regulations concerning immigration are frequently adjusted according to the economic situation and needs of a country.
The economic consequence of immigration for the native population, the perceived effect on cultural identity and social cohesion, and the strong feeling involved, make this a topic with different interpretations. Fear of migrants rests upon the fear of change, and especially changes to culture. Cultures change continuously over time. The cultures as we know them today are the result of centuries of migration. Consequently, migration under national regulations of each country is somewhat everybody can get advantage in very diverse aspects.