Factors that have positively affected the individual’s health and well-being - Assignment Example

There are several factors that positively influence the health and well-being of my individual. The first one I am going to talk about is that he only drinks 4units of alcohol a week. This is very good because health guidelines set out a maximum weekly alcohol intake of 14 to 21units for women and 21 to 28units for men. However; the belief that one glass of wine equals one unit of alcohol is only true when that glass contains 125ml and the wine is around 8 per cent ABV (alcohol by volume).

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Today, many wines are 12 or 13 per cent ABV, and most standard wine glasses contain 175ml – 2.3 which equals to 3 units. ‘a decade ago, we used to like small, crystal glasses – but now most customers choose a large, plain wine glass,’ said a spokesman for john Lewis, whose best-selling wine glass, the Vino large, holds 500ml. and as the wine, the strength of beer and lager has also increases – and a pint of stronger beer is now the equivalent of three units.

According to U.S. National Institution on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, a safe daily limit for those aged 65 and over is just one unit of alcohol a day. That means half a pint of normal – strength beer, one measure of spirits, a 50 ml glass of sherry or a 125 ml glass of wine. According to the UK Medical Council on Alcoholism, the definition of ‘light drinking’ is fewer than eight units a week for men and fewer than six for women.

* 5.9million people in Britain drink twice the recommended daily guidelines on occasions

* Deaths from cirrhosis have risen 500 per cent since 1970

* Around 5,000 under-15s are admitted to hospital with alcohol poisoning in England a year.

Excessive drnking can cause:

* Mouth, neck, stomach, liver, bowel, and breast cancer

* Heart disease

* Impaired bone formation and osteoporosis

* Digestive problems such as ulcers, liver cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis.

What is excessive?

The government recommends no more than three units of alcohol per day for women and four for men. Binge drinking involves drinking more than six units in one night for men.

Dangers of alcohol are:


The liver is frequently affected in chronic alcohol abuse. Consequences can include fatty liver disease, an accumulation of fat droplets inside liver cells, alcohol induced hepatitis and cirrhosis. In cirrhosis, liver cells die and scar tissue irreversibly changes the normal architecture of the tissue.

Nervous system

Alcohol can damage many body tissue including the brain and nerves. Excessive intake of alcohol can leave a person with temporary memory loss (blackouts) or lead to a loss of consciousness, or coma. Heavier drinkers may suffer with more persistent short-term memory loss. Chronic alcoholics may develop double-vision, loss of balance and profound memory loss. The alcoholic who suddenly stops drinking may experience alcohol withdrawal delirium which can include shaking, anxiety, hallucinations and seizures. Permanent damage from alcoholism can include pain and loss of sensation in the arms and legs and loss of intelligence.

Cardiovascular system

Short-term effects from a drink may include an increased pulse rate and dilation of blood vessels throughout the body. Chronic alcohol use can cause serious damage such as elevating your blood pressure, hastening arteriosclerosis and causing cardiomyopathy, a damaged and weekend heart muscle. In some [people, however, heart disease can result from even moderate drinking.

Alcohol absorption

Alcohol, absorbed through the walls of the stomach and small intestine, is carried by the blood vessels to the liver to be metabolised. Here, alcohol in the blood flows through the sinusoid, passes through the sinusoid walls and enters liver cells. The liver, however can only process about 1oz. of alcohol per hour. Any excess will continue to circulate throughout your entire body until the liver is able to process more.

Digestive systems

Alcohol can damage many of the digestive system. Irritation of the stomach lining, gastritis, can lead to vomiting or even bleeding from small tears in the stomach. Chronic irritation can result in gastric and duodenal ulcers. Alcoholic may also develop acute and chronic pancreatitis. Occurring frequently in alcoholics with cirrhosis, oesophageal varices are dilates veins are dilated in the oesophagus which may rupture and hemorrage. Cancer, a major cause of death in alcoholics, is linked to alcohol consumption. It can develop in the larynx, esophagus, stomach and liver.


Alcohol can cause impotence in men, interruptions in menstruation and damage to sperms and eggs. When a pregnant woman drinks, so does her baby. Alcohol can cause serious problems for an unborn baby that can affect its whole life. It can be born with fatal alcohol syndrome which can cause it to be underweight, grow slower and have birth defects. It may have a smaller brain and suffer with a lower I.Q. or mental retardation. Alcohol can also be passed along to a baby through breast milk.


The form of alcohol we drink, ethyl alcohol, is made from sugar, starch and other carbohydrates by fermentation with yeast. Once believed to be the ‘elixir of life,’ it is known to be a consciousness-altering drug and a potentially lethal poison. Unfortunately, social drinking all too often leads to alcohol abuse and dependence, the disease of alcoholism. Excessive alcohol use can result in

Destroyed relationships and loss of a job. Health consequences can include cancer, accidental death, malnutrition and damage to the brain, nerves, liver, pancreas, stomach, heart, blood vessels, and unborn baby.

Another positive factor is he exercises.

Regular exercise is important to keep your body working properly. The human body changes all the time, and adapts to what is asked to do. If the body is not used to being exercised, muscles become weaker and bones and joints are not as strong. Regular exercise makes the body work much better. Regular exercise has a lot of benefits like the heart beats more effectively, it pumps more blood with each beat and more blood vessels form in muscles, which mean they work better. Exercise lowers blood pressure and it helps people who are overweight to lose weight. It also helps reduce the damage done by fats in the blood and it reduces chest problems, it also reduces stress.

The effect of exercise on blood pressure and fats in the blood helps to prevent heart disease. Studies 1 activity carries the same risk of heart disease as smoking or high cholesterol level. By helping to control their weight, exercise also reduces the risk of diabetes. There are other reasons why you should exercise because if you don’t you could get coronary heart disease, cardio-vascular problems, obesity, osteoporosis and muscle and joint problems. Exercise helps us to keep fit. It strengthens our body, helps to control our weight and burns off extra energy.

It has a great many other health benefits too because it improves our circulation, helps our heart work more efficiently, improves our strength in our muscles, improves our stamina, reduces the risk of heart attack, improves our mobility, and helps in building up our immunity. If we take no exercise we may be putting our health at risk, and exercise has other positive effects on our well-being. It has many psychological effects, for example it builds confidence, helps relive stress, improves self-esteem, gives a general feeling of well-being, it is a great way to socialise. Exercise changes our body’s composition. It increases the amount of muscle we have and reduces our fat levels. Babies, from the moment that they are born, begin to exercise their muscles.

Children exercise in all their activities and sport is a major part of growing up for most people. It protects our physical as well as our emotional well-being. It also helps protect us against diseases in later life such as osteoporosis. It will mean he will not loose his self control or destroy relationships, he doesn’t become bankrupt and loose all his money on alcohol, he could still get liver infections but he hasn’t got as higher risk. Alcohol acts as a sedative on the brain. It also affects our self control because it is also a depressant, because he isn’t a heavy drinker he isn’t alcohol dependant.

Another positive fact is hygiene.

He is very hygienic. Personal cleanliness promotes our good health and well-being. Regular washing and attention to our personal hygiene helps to control the growth of bacteria, viruses and fungi. Left uncontrolled, some of these organisms could cause disease and illness. Our body provides an ideal breeding ground for some of these organisms. This is because we are warm and produce moisture in the form of sweat. Also in our sweat are wasted products and dead cells that can provide ideal growing conditions for bacteria. There are few areas of our body where we do not sweat. This means that most areas need cleaning, especially where we have hair and keep constantly clothed. Lack of personal hygiene can be a difficult social problem that can lead to exclusion from group activities. If we allow bacteria to build up on the skin we may start to smell.

This is socially unacceptable. In some other countries body odour does not carry such social stigma. If we become infectious we can pass on dangerous diseases and infections. It is important to have a good toilet hygiene, for example, washing our hands after going to the lavatory. In out=r gut we all carry bacteria that are capable of causing food poising. Listeria and E. coli are commonly found in the human gut where they are part of our digestive process. By not washing our hands we can unknowingly spread harmful bacteria. Anyone who is already ill or unwell has a much greater risk from illnesses such as 3food poisoning.

In certain situations where the person is already seriously ill this can prove fatal. Mass outbreaks of food poisoning are fortunately rare in the UK. However, when they do occur they can usually be traced back to poor hygiene. Dental hygiene is important too. Bacteria is found in the mouth. This is quite normal. Saliva helps to stop bacteria building up when we are chewing. At other times the bacteria produce an acid, which can build up around the teeth and in food particles. When this happens, small areas of tooth enamel can be dissolved.

This is how cavities are created and where tooth decay can start. If this carries on it will break into the pulp cavity of the tooth. The nerve in the tooth will become irritated and we experience toothache. By brushing our teeth regularly we can give them a higher level of protection. Maintaining a good level of personal hygiene is very important. Many diseases and infections can be eradicated or controlled by good personal hygiene practice.

Another good factor is that he doesn’t take illegal drugs. The dictionary describes drugs as substances that are used in medicine, used as a stimulant, used as a stimulant. Drugs effect the body’s chemistry. Our body chemistry is finely balanced to assist in the control of our bodily functions. Even the smallest changes can have a major effect on how we function. To the doctor, drugs are one of the most valuable weapons in the fight against disease and illnesses. To obtain many of them we require a prescription.

This is because if they are not given correctly some can be dangerous, if not fatal. The correct amounts of prescribed drugs can be beneficial to the patients health. In some circumstances prescribed drugs can have a negative effect. For example, taking certain drugs can lead to addiction. Other types of drug can be obtained without a prescription because they have less risk. For, example, many painkillers can be brought over the counter in pharmacies and other shops. Care must be taken not to take more than the stated dose. These, too, can be harmful if taken in excess. Here are two types of use and abuse of drugs.

A painkiller drug taken for a headache – taken as the packet says – is very effective at relieving the symptoms of a cold, headache or other minor pains. Taken to excess or overdose, it will cause liver failure and this can be fatal. And a heart attack victim will be given various drugs when they reach the coronary ward. Having a heart attack can be extremely painful and requires very strong painkillers. In the hands of the doctor this has the effect of taking the pain away. Many drugs can only be obtained on prescription. Some of the drugs are so strong they are listed as controlled drugs. These drugs usually have powerful addicted properties. Doctors are always particularly careful when prescribing these drugs. Illegal drugs.

Heroin is a form of drug. We all know that this drug wrecks lives and kills people. What happens when a person’s use of a chemical becomes uncontrollable, or it seems to control them? Even when there are serious consequences to their use of drugs, users may not want to stop. If and when they do decide to give up, they might find it harder than they thought. This level of dependency on drugs is known as addiction. Taken over long periods of time, certain drugs make a person physically and psychologically dependant. Addicts who try and stop taking them experience unpleasant side effects known as ‘withdrawal symptoms’.

These symptoms can range from bouts of depression to uncontrollable fits and convulsions. Amongst drug-users this is often given the slang term, cold turkey. The misuse of drugs Act 1971 bans the non-medical use of controlled drugs. It makes the scale or possession of these drugs with the intention to supply, a serious criminal offence. Under new government law reforms offenders will save lengthy prison sentences. There are a great many illegal drugs now available to addicts and uses – often manufactured in poor and dangerous conditions. This means they may be mixed with other toxic substances and this forms extra risks.

Illegal drugs can be used to give pleasure, energy and physical stimulation. These effects are usually short-lived; the long-term effects, however, are often damaging. Physically, some drugs can destroy the persons body and mind. People who take illegal drugs on a regular basis may take to crime to provide cash to support their habit. There are many different illegal drugs such as: cannabis or hash, draw, ganja, marijuana, spliff, weed and the effects to these are craving for food, feeling anxious, more alert and talkative, and lack of energy. And the dangers are impairs concentration, tiredness, lack of energy, anxiety, paranoia, respiratory, disease and lung cancer in long-term users. LSD, acid, trips, tabs have dangers of flashbacks which can be frightening from a bad trip, can complicate mental health problems, increasing tolerance to the drug.

Heroin or h, henry, smack, gear, horse, junk have dangers of addiction, increasing tolerance to the drug, death if impure or taken in excess, HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B when sharing needles, damage to veins at the injection sites. Ecstasy or E, XTC, doves and this has risks of overheating and dehydration, possible liver and kidney problems, and it may lead to brain damage. Cocaine, coke, Charlie, snow has dangers such as damage to veins at injection sites, can cause chest and heart problems, addiction. Amphetamines, speed, sulph, whiz, uppers have dangers like tiredness/depression, anxiety, long-term use can lead to mental illnesses and puts strain on heart.