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Ethical Health Care Issues Assignment

In today’s time and age in society we have ethical health care issues. One which is Blood Transfusions. What is a Blood Transfusion? What are the risks? What can you expect during and what happens before? Who may need one what is the outcome. How many types of Blood Transfusions are there? Blood transfusions are a procedure by which bold is given through a IV hose line. It is then the IV put into your blood vessel. A needle being inserted does all this. In some people the transfusion may take a couple of hours.

Even with this process some errors can occur. Over five million people may need a blood transfusion. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute January 30, 2012) Blood transfusions have many types of blood such as A, B, AB, and O. the blood is also Rh-Negative or Rh-positive. In order to have a blood transfusion the blood match must be the same. (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute January 30, 2012) We have many blood banks that test for blood and can also store blood for emergencies. Not all blood donated is from just anyone. Many patients can donated their own blood for major surgery. We will discuss the four major ethical principles can be applied or do they apply.

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These principles are Autonomy, in which a patient has the right to be able to refuse service form a physician in which they are responsible for their own choices. There is also Nonmaleficence is in which the physician must provide care for the patient. Beneficence should be where physician puts the patient first. Justice Codes of Ethics Code of ethics in a professional manner help controls physician’s behavior. Code of conduct and ethics is a commitment to patient care. Patients seeking care are being trustful and believing in what the physician is telling them. Ethical code offers some type of protection for both patients and staff members.

All doctors take a oath (Hippocratic of the Prayer of Maimonides) and other may use the Declaration of Geneva. (Journal of Medical Ethics 1999) Ethical code works similar way to ethical principles. Now ethical principle’s is now the most general use form of ethics. Ethical Principles on Blood Transfusions In healthcarehave codes of ethics within its profession. Even Blood Transfusions have rules and guidelines. Depending on the type of Blood Transfusion you need the rules and process are the same. Ethical guidelines from physicians and health care facilities are in place for patient safety and to protect the physician’s rights and patients.

Physicians are supposed to give quality care. Blood Transfusions Blood transfusions are the use of blood and red cells, platelets, and plasma. (Allard 2009) The blood gets typed for HIV and Aids, Hepatitis B and in some cases C and other sexual transmitted diseases. In our society it seems like blood transfusions are the norm now. When American Red Cross and other companies that do blood drives the blood that is donated is screened and tested for different blood types and antibodies and diseases. All of this is done before it is used in transfusions. (Torpy June 13, 2012) Some blood transfusions have reactions behind them.

Some symptoms that come from transfusions are fever, rashes, and also bacterial contamination. (Allard 2009) Blood transfusions are normally used for emergency services. Within the guidelines of blood transfusions the patient must be identified correctly so the wrong person will not be put into jeopardy. The health care facilities do not want a lawsuit on their hands. This is the reason why questionnaires are filled out. Transfusion Medicine In years before and recent and to come transfusions have improved with time. They have better criteria and more stringent testing. Health care workers are trying not to do unnecessary procedures.

Four Principles Autonomy with this principle is physicians not making the patient go against their morals or ethical values. In some procedures within adults and children may vary. (Journal of Medical Ethics 1999) In any transfusion you have to have a consent form signed. The hold procedure needs to be explained in full. If consent is not signed there is a chance for less risk this is encase of the transfusion not working. Nonmaleficence is both legal and ethical if your ethics pays a part of your treating a patient then the patient must be referred to another physician.

Your patients must understand your procedure with the least harm and danger to them. (Journal of Medical Ethics 1999) Beneficence physicians should put the patient first and above anything else. (Allard 2009) This means the patient’s welfare comes first. The main concern should be the patient’s health and well-being. (Journal of Medical Ethics 1999) Justice should be were treated equally. They should not be treated differently because of race, gender, and their sexuality and or wealth. There should not be any injustice with patients. There decisions to be made and they have to be done with logical thinking and using your ethical skills.

There are things that physicians may not believe in but that does not mean that the patient should not receive care. Conclusion Ethical codes and principle are values that have been set for physicians. We should use common sense of ethical thinking and codes. Using our ethical that we have instilled in our actions and lives. Blood transfusions can be necessary and be elective if chosen. All patients have the right to care. Most people are responsible for their care and whether or not they want to receive care. Decisions and action should not be made on information alone.

Patients should be able to understand and receive care; they should not be pressured into making decision they are not sure of. The four principles can be used in this process because of choices, safety and physician based ethics. Health care issues have greater meaning with blood transfusions because the blood has to be filtered and checked for possible diseases. Patients verifications have to be made and doubled checked. Blood transfusions are becoming well known with physicians and hospitals they have made many strides and improvements. Health care worldwide is becoming much better with procedures and information.

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