Demographic Change and Social and Welfare - Assignment Example

A variety of socio-demographic characteristics can be identified and used to categorize groups with shared behaviours or traits they are the studies or information about, people’s lifestyles, it also refers to different numerical characteristics of a population habits, such as population movements, spending, age, social grade, employment, size, structure, sex, income, education, household size, home ownership or other defining characteristics. Demographics look at the movement of a population, the growth and the recession of the population in an area, a borough and also in a country.

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How the government uses them

Since 1801 the government has been carrying out a census after every ten years. The nation has set aside one day for the census a count of all people and households. It is the most complete source of information about the population that they have. The latest census was held on Sunday 29 April 2001.

Every effort is made to include everyone, and that is why the census is so important. It is the only survey which provides a detailed picture of the entire population, and is unique because it covers everyone at the same time and asks the same core questions everywhere. This makes it easy to compare different parts of the country.

The information the census provides allows central and local government, health authorities and many other organisations to target their resources more effectively and to plan housing, education, health and transport services for years to come.

In England and Wales, the census is planned and carried out by the Office for National Statistics. Elsewhere in the UK, responsibility lies with the General Register Office for Scotland and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency.

I think demographics are a good idea because it helps the government to see if there have been any changes in the population, to see whether the population conditions have improved or worsen. It gives them a better idea and statistics of different factors regarding the population

How demographics affected the 7/7 London bombings

After the number of terrorist attacks that happened both in the UK and in the U.S have had a big impact on the population and has built fear and tension in for almost everyone especially those who were affected by theses attacks.

1. Birth rates

This is the number of live births per thousands that happen per year.

The number of birth rates must have been affected on the 7/7 london bombings as there were over 50 deaths and over 700 people were injured this shows that out of all those people who were pregnant and were expecting babies must have lost their child or put their life at risk, this must have affected the birth rates of the children.

I did some research to find some statistics of the bitrh rates in the UK to see if there were any changes in the birth rates during the year the bomb attack happened.

Researching on the internet I found these staistics on the statistic.gov website. Looking at the table I can see there was a difference in the birth rates in the year which the attack happened. On the table I have highlighted the year the attack had happened which was in 2005.

Starting from 2001 you can see each year the birth rates increased a large amount but when they reached to 2005, the year which the attack occured you can a see there was a big decrease in the birth rates. Moving onto 2006, the birth rates starting increasing again as normal. This shows that the attack must have affected the birth rates within the UK in the year 2005 when the attack occurred. Looking at the statistics there seems to be a pattern from one year to another but when it reaches 2005 the rate seems to drop and then increase again the year after.

2. Death rates

This is the number or population per thousands that dies each year.

The number of people that died during the 7/7 bomb attack must have affected the death rates of the populations as results show that over 50 people died due to the attack and left over 700 people injured. Those who were left badly injured must have died earlier than they were expected due to the pain and functioning of the body. This must have affected the death rates of the population because a number of people died due to the bomb attack.

I have researched for the death rate statistics and have found this table below regarding the death rates in England per year. As you can see I have cut out the other regions which were unnecessary for my assignment and have left the one that was necessary which is London because is the region where my attack happened.

Looking at the death rates in the area where the bomb attack happened in 2005 I can see that there doesn’t seem to be much of a difference or a pattern in the death rates like the one I saw in the birth rates. Only 50 people had died during the bomb attack, this is a small amount of number of deaths. I think this maybe the reason why my issue may not have affected death rates as much as birth rates because death rates statistics only affected those who died and birth rates affected both those who died and were injured. During the attack over 700 individuals were injured any of these individuals could have been pregnant and lost there baby whereas death rate only affected those who died.

3. Impact on the NHS services

When the attack occurred various articles such as the ones I have included in AO1 suggested the amount of impact the bombing had on the NHS services. It showed the number of casualties that had to be seen by the NHS staff as there was not enough to go around seeing every casualty. Some casualties had to be transferred to other hospitals due to the amount of patients that were coming in to be seen. This must have had a big impact on both the staff and patients as they may not have received the full care, attention and service they should have been getting due to this a number of people must have died.

The impact on the emergency services was so full that they had to send messages out to the public saying, not to call the emergency services unless you are in a life and death situation. This shows the large amount of patients that had to be seen by the NHS and how it affected those who had minor injuries and had not yet been seen by the doctors. Therefore these patients may not have got treated or may have waited long hours to get treated as the other patients who were more seriously injured had to get treated first. This must have been unfair on the patients who were already waiting in the waiting area to be seen as they must have had to wait even longer.

4. Ethnic background

My social issue may have also affected the cultural backgrounds of the individuals because those who were Asians were being discriminated against by the whites. This was because the whites considered all Asians to be terrorist particularly Muslims. Above in my assignment I have mentioned when terrorists feel angry about innocent Muslims around the world getting tortured and killed by the whites, for an example Muslims in Iraq and getting tortured by white soldiers.

This makes the terrorist want to take their anger out on the next closest thing they can think of relating to the white soldiers this is their race therefore they plan to attack the white people as they are the same race as the soldiers. I think the same reaction happened after the attack because the whites wanted to take their anger out on the next closest thing to the terrorists, which again in this case was the race (Muslims). This caused racial conflict between both ethnic groups causing unacceptable racial behavior. This may have also caused stereotyping against ethnic groups as all Muslims may have considered white people as racist and all white people may have considered Muslims as terrorists.

Other Riots within the UK

I have done some further research on other riots that have also took place in the U.K I will give a short summary of each of these riots t make you aware of what had happened in each one.

Notting hill

The Notting Hill race riots were a series of racially-motivated riots which took place in the Notting Hill area of London, England over several nights in late August and early September 1958.

The end of World War II had seen a marked increase in Caribbean migrants to Britain. By the 1950s, white working-class “Teddy Boys” were beginning to show hatred towards the black families in the area. The situation was taken advantage of and inflamed by groups such as Sir Oswald Mosley’s Union Movement as these groups urged disaffected white residents to “Keep Britain White”

The riot is thought to have started on Saturday 30 August when a gang of white youths attacked a white Swedish woman named Majbritt Morrison. The youths had seen her the previous night arguing with her Jamaican husband Raymond at Latimer Road tube station. They had shouted racial insults at him and were furious when she turned on them. Seeing her the next night, the same youths beat her with bottles, stones, wood and struck her in the back with an iron bar until the police got involved and she was escorted home.

Later that night a crowd of 300 to 400 white people, many of them “Teddy Boys”, were seen on Bramley Road attacking the houses of West Indian residents. The disturbances, rioting and attacks continued every night until they finally petered out by 5 September 1958.

The Metropolitan Police arrested over 140 people during the two weeks of the disturbance – mostly white youths, but also many black people found carrying weapons. A report to the Metropolitan Police Commissioner stated that of the 108 people eventually charged (for crimes such as grievous bodily harm, affray and riot and possessing offensive weapons) 72 were white and 36 were black people.

How it affected the culture and other cultures

As these riots were caused due to racial harassment, it shows that at the time of the riots there must have been a lot of racial discrimination going on against different cultures and ethnic groups. This must have caused a split in the society, and must have also caused fallout and social isolation between the two ethnic groups. Reading the passage I can see it all started of by a white gang being racist to a black man. This shows that not all whites are likely for harmony as some are also aggressive and racist and want to cause conflict between different ethnic groups.

The report above also suggests that some people were charged by the police for grievously bodily harm (GBH) in the riot and 72 of these people were white and 36 were black. So a majority of them were white. This shows at the time of the attack white people probably didn’t like black people much, therefore treated them differently and discriminated against them. This must have motivated the people there to make false assumptions and judgements about all white and black people although some may have been innocent, causing stereotyping. This shows at the time of the riots there was a lot of racial harassment going around at the time.

Brixton Riots

Brixton in south London was, and still is, an area of deep social and economic problems high unemployment, high crime, poor housing, and no facilities in a mainly black community. The police were strongly disliked and seen as largely reactionary and distant. An attempt at positive crime control did much to increase tensions.

The Metropolitan Police began Operation Swamp 81 at the beginning of April, aimed at reducing street crime, mainly through the heavy use of the so-called sus law, which allowed police to stop and search individuals on the basis of a mere ‘suspicion’ of wrong-doing. Police officers had to wear plain clothes and were dispatched into Brixton, and in five days almost 1,000 people were stopped and searched. The local communities were not asked about the operation and tensions between the black community and the police on the streets of Brixton reached breaking point. Local residents complained about young, inexperienced police officers being sent on the streets, provoking confrontation.

On the evening of the 10th, a black youth who had been stabbed in an attack was being helped by a police patrol in Atlantic Road. As he was being helped, a large hostile crowd gathered. As they tried to take him to a waiting car on Railton Road, the crowd intervened. The police were attacked and the struggle only ended when more police officers arrived, the youth was taken to a hospital.

The crowd is reported to have believed that the police stopped and questioned the stabbed youth, rather than help him. Rumours spread that the youth had been left to die by the police or that the police looked on as the stabbed youth was lying on the street. Over 200 youths, black and white, reportedly turned on the police. In response the police decided to increase the number of police foot patrols in Railton Road, despite the tensions, and carry on with the “Operation Swamp 81” throughout the night of Friday the 10th and into the following day, Saturday the 11th of April.

Through the night of the 10th and into Saturday 11th, the police brought a very strong force into the area. Reportedly, the word on the street was that the stabbed youth died as a result of police brutality, fuelling tensions throughout the day as crowds slowly gathered. Tensions first erupted as two police officers stopped and searched a mini cab in Railton Road. By this time Brixton Road (Brixton High Street) was reportedly filled with angry people and police cars were hit with bricks. The tension escalated and spread, and the 9 o’clock BBC News that evening reported 46 police officers injured, five seriously.

Shops were looted on Railton Road, Mayall Road, Leeson Road, Acre Lane and Brixton Road. The looting in Brixton by black and white youths reportedly started at around 6pm, organised looting by white outsiders was reported. At 6.15pm the fire brigade received their first call, as a police van was set on fire by rioters in Railton Road, with the fire brigade being warned “riot in progress”. As the fire brigade approached the police barrier, they were waved through without warning, driving down Railton Road towards 300 youths armed with bottles and bricks. The fire brigade met the crowd at the junction between Railton Road and Shakespeare Road and were attacked with stones and bottles. It was also reported that ambulances were pelted with bricks.

The police put out emergency calls to police officers across London, asking for assistance. The police had no strategy or equipment apart from inadequate helmets and non fire proof plastic shields, and were ordered to clear the streets of rioters. The police reportedly also had difficulties in radio communication. The police proceeded in clearing the Atlantic-Railton-Mayall area by pushing the rioters down the road, forming deep shield walls. The rioters responded with bricks, bottles, and petrol bombs.

Later the violence further escalated. Ordinary black and white members of the public attempted to settle between the police and the rioters, calling for de-escalation by moving back police out of the area. The destructive efforts of the rioters peaked at around 8pm, as all attempts of mediation failed. Two pubs, 26 businesses, schools and other structures were set alight as rioters went on a rampage. Hundreds of local resident were trapped in their houses, locked in by either police or rioters. A white family was reportedly robbed in their house at knife point, while a young woman was raped in her house by an intruder.

Over 1,000 police were dispatched into Brixton, squeezing out the rioters. On April 12, 1981, the area was largely subdued, with no large groups except the police on the streets. The fire brigade refused to return until the following morning. Police numbers grew to over 2,500, and by the early hours of Sunday morning the rioting had fizzled out.

How it affected the people

It started of as a black man injured and turned into a big riot. The cause of it was mainly the treatment of the police officers as the pupils felt discriminated against and felt the police weren’t giving fair treatments to others. This may have had an effect on all ethnic groups as they may have felt more freedom to do crime as they must have felt the police are not bothered.

This must have had a big impact on the police officers as most individuals and groups may not have liked them very much therefore discriminated against them. Groups of people may have fought back with police instead of listening to them and the offences they have made.

Some police officers may have got discriminated even after their shift was over, just for being a police officer as there now was so much hatred towards the police officers. It must have made the police officers life in danger and must have put their career on the line because if they didn’t participate in helping out they could lose their job and again by helping it put their life in danger.

This also may have affected the black community as they must have felt fear from the police as they were aware of how racist the police was. They may have felt scared and tension when doing anything in case they might get stopped by the police.