In my opinion, development of each civilization much depends on different factors, such as natural environment, people’s mentality, historical circumstances and so on. To make some comparison of the most significant world cultures let’s take as examples the art pieces of theirs.
What the Romans did was learn from other cultures. Aphrodite, a Greek goddess, was memorialized in a fantastic sculpture in Roman times. To a large degree, it was the Romans who brought Greek (and Hellenistic) culture to world attention. Classical Greek female nudes are usually identified as Aphrodite, the goddess of love. Venus, the Roman mythological counterpart, was widely reproduced in miniature and monumental sizes, and in diverse media, including stone, bronze, and terracotta. Because they were popular in imperial Rome, Venuses became generic representations of feminine charm, for these statues capture the moment when a woman, mortal or divine, is glimpsed performing her private rituals of bathing and dressing.
Since many Greek sculptures have not survived, Roman copies provide a means to study their predecessors. Some female nudes such as those by the Athenian sculptor Praxiteles (Fourth Century B.C.) provide a more realistic depiction than the idealized figures of the Fifth Century B.C.
On the contrary Indian believes dedicate to asceticism and total non-violence. Indian masterpieces reflect the pure beauty of nature, generosity of a person and harmony of mind. An interesting point – the Hindu denial of the self-existence of the natural world. To people in a culture that values obvious trappings of wealth and visible emblems of material success, an acknowledgement of such a proposition can only come as frightful recognition of the tawdry emptiness of life in contemporary industrialized societies. Hinduism provides a lasting critique of Western acquisitiveness.
A piece of the Chinese literature, the Tao, offers a restorative vision of a balanced human life lived in the context of a natural world community. Do the poems describe a Chinese society contemporaneous with the writing of the poems? No more than they refer to societies years later and miles away. Chinese art shows us the people’s self-renunciation, will to purification through modesty and patience.
Coming out from all have been stated above we can make a general conclusion that in old European culture people praised the body perfection, the person in itself, when in Asia, on contrary – the personality, its high morals and harmony with the nature. European people were thinking of and working on praising and perfection of the body while the Asians – of mind. Though there are some features in common for both these cultures: people of both civilizations on their artifacts represent their daily life, their believes and views of nature; they all are eager to perfect themselves in some way.