Comparisons between the Microsoft Windows and Linux computer operating systems are a long-running discussion topic within the personal computer industry. Throughout the entire period of the Windows systems, through the introduction of Windows 7, Windows has retained an extremely large retail sales majority among operating systems for personal desktop use, while Linux has sustained its status as the most prominent free software operating system.
After their initial clash, both operating systems moved beyond the user base of the personal computer market and share a rivalry on a variety of other devices, with offerings for the server and embedded systems markets, and mobile internet access. Linux and Microsoft Windows differ in philosophy, cost, versatility and stability, with each seeking to improve in their perceived weaker areas. Comparisons of the two operating systems tend to reflect their origins, historic user bases and distribution models.
Typical perceived weaknesses regularly cited have often included poor consumer familiarity with Linux, and Microsoft Windows’ susceptibility to viruses and malware. Security A true comparison between Windows and Linux on the values of the inherent security of each operating system is hard to obtain, and the matter is extremely contentious among both security professionals and computer hobbyists. Because there are many more Windows systems in the world, there are simply more targets available for attack.
This factor alone makes Windows a richer and more attractive target for malware developers. The security differences between Windows and Linux are heavily debated and the security track record of both operating systems has proven that Linux has had fewer serious vulnerabilities. Also, Linux derives its security from the underlying Unix design philosophy Criteria WindowLinux malwareOnce malicious software is present on a Windows-based system, it can sometimes be incredibly difficult to locate and remove. As such, users are advised to install and run anti-malware programs.
In the event of root kit infection, users may have to resort to reformatting the system’s hard disk and re-installing Windows anti-malware tools such as ClamAV and Panda Security’s Desktop Secure for Linux do exist. These programs are mainly intended to filter Windows malware from emails and network traffic traveling through Linux-based servers. The extreme rarity of this type of occurrence is such that it is not usually necessary to use anti-malware programs.
The exception to this would be if the Linux-based system is connected to Windows-based systems, and only to mitigate the spread of Windows malware Open vs. Closedbecause Windows is closed-source, only Microsoft-employed programmers (or licensed third-parties) can fix bugs, Because the software is closed-source, consumers have to trust that Microsoft is not doing anything against them. Linux Claims its platform is more secure because all of its code is reviewed by so many people that bugs are detected. anyone with programming experience is free to fix bugs and submit them for inclusion in future releases and updates.
However such an approach has indeed produced several vulnerabilities, although this is a rare case Cost Windows is expensive, for server use, Linux is very cheap compared to windows; microsoft allows a single copy of windows to be used on only one computer. For desktop or home use , Linux is very cheap or free, once you have purchased Linux, you can run it on any number of computers for no additional charge. You can buy a Linux book and get the operating system included with the book for free Command-line interface The Command Prompt exists to provide direct communication between the user and the operating system. A . NET-based command line environment called Windows Power Shell has been developed.
It varies from Unix/Linux shells in that, rather than using byte streams Linux is strongly integrated with the system console. The command line can be used to recover the system if the graphics subsystem fails. A large number of Unix shells exist, with the majority being “Bourne shell compatible” Device driver The Windows installation media usually contains enough drivers to make the operating system functional. To this end, “generic” drivers may be used to provide basic functionality.
Drivers can later be upgraded from the manufacturer. Linux in most distributions include the majority of drivers available as modules. They are loaded at boot without user interaction. If moving an existing installation of Linux into a new computer or changing the motherboard or other hardware components, Linux will detect and activate the new supported hardware with little or no further intervention required Installation via Live EnvironmentsMay be installed through the Windows Reinstallation Environment or BartPE, but only the former is endorsed by Microsoft.
Almost all Linux distributions now have a live CD that may be used for testing, install or recovery User Focus Microsoft continually pushes for consistency between releases with guidelines for interface design. Their focus is on consistency and usability, but with increased concern for safety in new versions. Some inconsistencies may appear when using programs targeted for different desktop environments. Hardware the OS runs onWindows NT used to run on MIPS CPUs until Microsoft changed their mind.
It also used to run on Alpha CPUs, again, until Microsoft changed their mind. Linux runs on many different hardware platforms, not so with Windows, It runs on a very wide range of computers, from the lowest of the low to the highest of the high. The supported range of computers is all but stunning. Because of its ability to run without a GUI, and thus need less hardware horsepower than Windows, Linux can run on very old personal computers such as 486 based machines. Multiple userWindows is designed to be used by one person at a time.
Databases running under Windows allow concurrent access by multiple users, but the Operating System itself is designed to deal with a single human being at a time. Linux is a multi-user system, Linux, like all Unix variants, is designed to handle multiple concurrent users. Windows, of course, can run many programs concurrently, as can Linux. downtimeReboots are usually required after system and driver updates. Microsoft has its hot patching technology, designed to reduce downtimeLinux itself needs to restart only for kernel updates.
However, a special utility can be used to load the new kernel and execute it without a hardware reset and hence can stay up for years without a single hardware reboot, almost eliminating downtime Default file systemsThe way the default Windows’ file system NTFS works causes files to become fragmented, degrading the performance of the system significantly over time, and it requires regular defragmenting to combat thisLinux avoids fragmentation of the file system as much as possible Memory Management/ Disk Paging Windows most commonly employs a dynamically allocated page file for memory management.
A page file is allocated on disk, for less frequently accessed objects in memory, leaving more RAM available to actively used objects. Most hard drive installations of Linux utilize a “swap partition”, a partition dedicated exclusively for paging operations. This reduces slowdown due to disk fragmentation from general use, As disks are much slower than RAM, users can adjust Linux “swappiness” to keep processes in RAM memory for much longer before swapping to disk.
Seamless Integration into Heterogeneous Environments •Windows 2000-based server appliances deliver seamless integration and interoperability with Windows, UNIX, and heterogeneous networks. For example: •Built-in support for Single Sign-On (SSO), which allows end users access to all authorized network resources with a single authentication. •Support for both CIFS and NFS in an integrated fashion, easily enabling interoperability between UNIX and Windows-based networks. •Linux does not deliver comparable heterogeneous interoperability.
For example: •No support for SSO, thus requiring end users to use at least two logon names and passwords—one for Windows and one for Linux/UNIX. •Support for CIFS but only via Samba, not as an integrated, tested solution. Linux/Samba requires additional components and integration work by the OEM to match the integration built into Windows 2000. Thus, the OEM must focus resources on development, integration, testing, and ongoing maintenance of the operating system, increasing development cost and slowing time-to-market.
TrainingMany IT courses are written for participants to learn how to use and manage Windows systems and networks. Most computer assistance experts have Windows training and qualifications. Linux is taught in many computing university courses in programming and computer science. Linux diplomas and certificates are rarely offered documentationA wealth of information is available free online, or in books, as well as on Microsoft’s own support page. Most documentation is available online, either in FAQ form or Wiki pages on developers’ websites.
Detailed documentation for specific commands, programs, functions, libraries, files, and file formats are available through offline documentation systems Third Party DocumentationDocumentation is either written in-house or by a consulting firm for most proprietary softwareDocumentation for source packages usually in a readme file, also man pages, info pages, and other types of generally programmer-supplied documentation.
Software updates•Windows Update handles only updates to Microsoft software and can deploy driver updates if present on the Windows update site. Some third party software has its own separate update manager •Windows security updates typically require a restart. •The Package manager handles updates for software that was installed via the package manager. •Updates generally do not require a system restart, with the exception of kernel updates. Updates to applications or libraries require restarting the applications to take effect, but there is usually no need to restart immediately Help Windows offers help in the GUI interface for the GUI interface.
I understand that the windows help is better for newcomersLinux also offers help via the man (short for manual) and info commands. The man documentation for the ls command, for example, is referred to as the man page for ls. Software CompatibilitySoftware Compatibility historically has been very high priority. However, exceptions do exist, even within Microsoft’s own applications. The distributed software is generally compatible with the current and upcoming versions of the distribution.